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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 29 (4) Defend Self’s Face Participant may attempt to protect or qualify self’s face (e.g., "I guess it is OK, but I have to ask my boss about it first," or "I’m not a fool to believe this"). (5) Restore Other’s Face Participants may help restoring other’s already threatened or lost face (e.g., "Your family, they need you" following other’s self-attacking, "No, you did fine, its' alright,"). (6) Restore Self’s Face Participants may want to restore self's already threatened or lost face (e.g., "I didn't do that, it's not me," "I'm not as bad as you think," or "You're not saying it to me, are you?"). In addition to the obvious faceworks, there are backchannels that serve as cues to continue conversations. Backchannels are not phrases or sentence. They do not function as faceworks but involve some level of positive or negative meaning in them. There are two categories of backchannels, positive and negative. Coders may sometimes need to assess their positivity and negativity according to the context in which they occur. (7) Positive Backchannels "Yeah," or "uh-huh" may function as backchannels. (8) Negative Backchannels "Nah," or "uh-uh" may function as backchannels. The final facework category is Neutral Face, which functions as neither threatening nor honoring. (9) Neutral Face Neutral Face typically does not contain any facework message (e.g., "This is Bill speaking," "Hello," or "My girlfriend's name is Jane,").

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 29
(4)
Defend Self’s Face
Participant may attempt to protect or qualify self’s face (e.g., "I guess it is OK, but I have
to ask my boss about it first," or "I’m not a fool to believe this").
(5)
Restore Other’s Face
Participants may help restoring other’s already threatened or lost face (e.g., "Your family,
they need you" following other’s self-attacking, "No, you did fine, its' alright,").
(6)
Restore Self’s Face
Participants may want to restore self's already threatened or lost face (e.g., "I didn't do
that, it's not me," "I'm not as bad as you think," or "You're not saying it to me, are you?").
In addition to the obvious faceworks, there are backchannels that serve as cues to
continue conversations. Backchannels are not phrases or sentence. They do not function
as faceworks but involve some level of positive or negative meaning in them. There are
two categories of backchannels, positive and negative. Coders may sometimes need to
assess their positivity and negativity according to the context in which they occur.
(7) Positive
Backchannels
"Yeah," or "uh-huh" may function as backchannels.
(8) Negative
Backchannels
"Nah," or "uh-uh" may function as backchannels.
The final facework category is Neutral Face, which functions as neither
threatening nor honoring.
(9) Neutral
Face
Neutral Face typically does not contain any facework message (e.g., "This is Bill
speaking," "Hello," or "My girlfriend's name is Jane,").


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