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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 4 tactical aspects of forced intervention, clinical psychological studies that investigate criminals’ mental states, social psychological approaches, and studies of communication. Communication studies examine a wide range of perspectives from relational development between a perpetrator and negotiator to the whole process of hostage crises from the beginning to the end. Holmes’ (1997) integrated model of hostage negotiation processes helps us understand a hostage crisis as a whole event (p. 89). According to Holmes, a hostage negotiation proceeds as a dynamic process that typically involves "external influences, structural elements, and negotiation interaction" (p. 90). Another representative communicative approach to hostage negotiations examines the "interactive process wherein negotiators and perpetrators react to one another’s message behavior" (Hammer & Rogan, 1997, p. 14). While Holmes (1997) sees the elements intertwining with each other, the interactive process approach focuses on the front line participants’ interaction. Hammer and Rogan argue that three concerns exist in negotiation participants: instrumental concerns, relational concerns, and identity concerns (pp. 14- 15). The law enforcement side responds to a hostage taking incident as a team. Kaiser (1990) discusses the importance of cooperation in the team. The following is the typical flow of the response to a hostage-taking crisis. Communication officers first receive the initial report and transfer the information to patrol units. Patrol officers judge the nature of the incident and gather appropriate units, then the on-scene commander is selected. A negotiation team directly communicates with the perpetrator. Although solution by negotiation is believed to be ideal, in some cases assault by a tactical team is required (pp. 15-16). In the beginning of a negotiation, a negotiator may want to firmly set up a

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 4
tactical aspects of forced intervention, clinical psychological studies that investigate
criminals’ mental states, social psychological approaches, and studies of communication.
Communication studies examine a wide range of perspectives from relational
development between a perpetrator and negotiator to the whole process of hostage crises
from the beginning to the end. Holmes’ (1997) integrated model of hostage negotiation
processes helps us understand a hostage crisis as a whole event (p. 89). According to
Holmes, a hostage negotiation proceeds as a dynamic process that typically involves
"external influences, structural elements, and negotiation interaction" (p. 90). Another
representative communicative approach to hostage negotiations examines the "interactive
process wherein negotiators and perpetrators react to one another’s message behavior"
(Hammer & Rogan, 1997, p. 14). While Holmes (1997) sees the elements intertwining
with each other, the interactive process approach focuses on the front line participants’
interaction. Hammer and Rogan argue that three concerns exist in negotiation
participants: instrumental concerns, relational concerns, and identity concerns (pp. 14-
15).
The law enforcement side responds to a hostage taking incident as a team. Kaiser
(1990) discusses the importance of cooperation in the team. The following is the typical
flow of the response to a hostage-taking crisis. Communication officers first receive the
initial report and transfer the information to patrol units. Patrol officers judge the nature
of the incident and gather appropriate units, then the on-scene commander is selected. A
negotiation team directly communicates with the perpetrator. Although solution by
negotiation is believed to be ideal, in some cases assault by a tactical team is required
(pp. 15-16). In the beginning of a negotiation, a negotiator may want to firmly set up a


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