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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 6 A hostage crisis produces intense strain not only for law enforcement but also for the perpetrator. It may easily lead to emotional instability in the perpetrator, which will negatively contribute to the process; whereas, a rational discussion will invite an ideal solution with a higher possibility of success. In order to create a situation in which rational discussion may occur, law enforcement will want to set up a win/win situation through a course of negotiation. Fuselier (1981) argues that this could be attained by making the perpetrator believe that both the perpetrator and the negotiator have gained something via their cooperation and progress (p. 13). In other words, a negotiator should create a sense in the hostage taker that his or her face is saved. The concept of face derives from the Chinese culture (Goffman, 1967, Wilson, 1992, Tracy, 1990). However, the most famous operationalization of face was by Goffman (1967), which most studies introduce as the fundamental concept of the said phenomenon. According to Goffman, face is "the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes" (p. 5). The face is a positive social image of self which one may naturally want to hold. A self is socially constructed through interaction. Following Goffman’s definition, Tracy (1990) describes such a self or face as "socially situated identities people claim or attribute to others" (p. 210). She also names positive and negative reinforcement of the face as "facework" (p. 210). Positive facework, or the reinforcement of the face by an interactional partner, will enhance and maintain the sense of self. In contrast, when one’s face is negatively projected, the sense of self is undermined and he or she may cope with this unpleasantness by taking measures that may include rejection of the interaction,

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 6
A hostage crisis produces intense strain not only for law enforcement but also for the
perpetrator. It may easily lead to emotional instability in the perpetrator, which will
negatively contribute to the process; whereas, a rational discussion will invite an ideal
solution with a higher possibility of success. In order to create a situation in which
rational discussion may occur, law enforcement will want to set up a win/win situation
through a course of negotiation. Fuselier (1981) argues that this could be attained by
making the perpetrator believe that both the perpetrator and the negotiator have gained
something via their cooperation and progress (p. 13). In other words, a negotiator should
create a sense in the hostage taker that his or her face is saved.
The concept of face derives from the Chinese culture (Goffman, 1967, Wilson,
1992, Tracy, 1990). However, the most famous operationalization of face was by
Goffman (1967), which most studies introduce as the fundamental concept of the said
phenomenon. According to Goffman, face is "the positive social value a person
effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular
contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes" (p. 5).
The face is a positive social image of self which one may naturally want to hold. A self is
socially constructed through interaction. Following Goffman’s definition, Tracy (1990)
describes such a self or face as "socially situated identities people claim or attribute to
others" (p. 210). She also names positive and negative reinforcement of the face as
"facework" (p. 210). Positive facework, or the reinforcement of the face by an
interactional partner, will enhance and maintain the sense of self. In contrast, when one’s
face is negatively projected, the sense of self is undermined and he or she may cope with
this unpleasantness by taking measures that may include rejection of the interaction,


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