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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 7 hostility, distrust, and retaliation. In any case, the negative reinforcement of self may cause displeasure that leads to emotional instability and irrationality. A hostage taking incident typically involves many people. Brown (1977) investigates the targeting mechanism. According to Brown (1977), there are three targetors by whom an individual’s face concerns are elevated; 1) the opposing party, 2) audience feedback, and 3) a third party’s intervention (pp. 292-294). A negotiator may become the opposing party or a mediator for a perpetrator according to the case. If a case is broadcast, the face of the perpetrator is presented to a mass audience, and, the level of significance attached to whether he or she saves or loses face will multiply. Broadcasting will intensely influence the perpetrator’s succeeding actions and reactions to the event. Therefore, in order to induce productive progress, a negotiator must pay maximum attention to the facework that is typically practiced through language. People’s desire to save face is strong, especially when they have invested much in achieving an unrealized goal. Brockner, Brockport, Rubin, Fine, Hamilton, Thomas, and Turetsky (1982) argue such desire in relation to entrapment. Entrapment is a conflict in which "decision-makers feel compelled to continue investing their resources in order to justify previous costs incurred in the pursuit of some goal" (Brockner et al., 1982, p. 248). Individuals who invest much tend to be entrapped in a situation from which they have gone too far to retreat. Brockner, Rubin, & Lang (1981) suggest that "the kind of self- presentation that people make by either continuing to invest or quitting" largely contribute to how deeply they become entrapped (p. 69). In other words, the more one looks a loser when quitting, the harder it is to quit. In order to avoid the situation in

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 7
hostility, distrust, and retaliation. In any case, the negative reinforcement of self may
cause displeasure that leads to emotional instability and irrationality.
A hostage taking incident typically involves many people. Brown (1977)
investigates the targeting mechanism. According to Brown (1977), there are three
targetors by whom an individual’s face concerns are elevated; 1) the opposing party,
2) audience feedback, and 3) a third party’s intervention (pp. 292-294). A negotiator may
become the opposing party or a mediator for a perpetrator according to the case. If a case
is broadcast, the face of the perpetrator is presented to a mass audience, and, the level of
significance attached to whether he or she saves or loses face will multiply. Broadcasting
will intensely influence the perpetrator’s succeeding actions and reactions to the event.
Therefore, in order to induce productive progress, a negotiator must pay maximum
attention to the facework that is typically practiced through language.
People’s desire to save face is strong, especially when they have invested much in
achieving an unrealized goal. Brockner, Brockport, Rubin, Fine, Hamilton, Thomas, and
Turetsky (1982) argue such desire in relation to entrapment. Entrapment is a conflict in
which "decision-makers feel compelled to continue investing their resources in order to
justify previous costs incurred in the pursuit of some goal" (Brockner et al., 1982, p. 248).
Individuals who invest much tend to be entrapped in a situation from which they have
gone too far to retreat. Brockner, Rubin, & Lang (1981) suggest that "the kind of self-
presentation that people make by either continuing to invest or quitting" largely
contribute to how deeply they become entrapped (p. 69). In other words, the more one
looks a loser when quitting, the harder it is to quit. In order to avoid the situation in


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