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Analysis on Hostage Crisis Negotiations With Regard to Identity Concerns
Unformatted Document Text:  Hostage Negotiations 8 which a hostage taker becomes entrapped, making the perpetrator feel that his or her face has been saved becomes essential. The concept of face and how it functions in human communication have been studied mainly in terms of three major perspectives. Tracy (1990) introduces the three approaches in her article: the sociopsychological research, politeness theory based on sociolinguistics, and the communicative approach (p. 210). These three approaches to face overlap in many respects, but sociopsychological studies focus more on cognitive aspects, politeness theories mainly discuss language, and the communicative perspective involves studies of messages conveyed through human interaction. Sociopsychological studies examine tactics that may threaten face, contextual aspects that encourage consciousness about face, and influences of face-saving concerns on negotiation consequences (Wilson, 1992, p. 181). According to Tracy (1990), three approaches typically reflects the sociopsychological tradition of face studies; 1) Goffman’s approach characterized by corrective and preventive strategies that people use in everyday life, 2) "self-presentation" theories that typically see facework as a "one-way phenomenon" and focus on presentation of social and private self, and 3) bargaining and conflict approach that limits the images of face to strength and firmness in negotiations (pp. 213-216). Politeness theories of face were originally developed by Brown and Levinson (1978) who defined the hierarchy of strategic politeness in interpersonal conversations. In 1987, they published a revised version of their theories of politeness. The core concept of Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory is positive and negative face. Positive face reflects "an actor’s desire to have the approval of others" and negative face refers to "the

Authors: Ie, Fumiko.
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Hostage Negotiations 8
which a hostage taker becomes entrapped, making the perpetrator feel that his or her face
has been saved becomes essential.
The concept of face and how it functions in human communication have been
studied mainly in terms of three major perspectives. Tracy (1990) introduces the three
approaches in her article: the sociopsychological research, politeness theory based on
sociolinguistics, and the communicative approach (p. 210). These three approaches to
face overlap in many respects, but sociopsychological studies focus more on cognitive
aspects, politeness theories mainly discuss language, and the communicative perspective
involves studies of messages conveyed through human interaction.
Sociopsychological studies examine tactics that may threaten face, contextual
aspects that encourage consciousness about face, and influences of face-saving concerns
on negotiation consequences (Wilson, 1992, p. 181). According to Tracy (1990), three
approaches typically reflects the sociopsychological tradition of face studies; 1)
Goffman’s approach characterized by corrective and preventive strategies that people use
in everyday life, 2) "self-presentation" theories that typically see facework as a "one-way
phenomenon" and focus on presentation of social and private self, and 3) bargaining and
conflict approach that limits the images of face to strength and firmness in negotiations
(pp. 213-216).
Politeness theories of face were originally developed by Brown and Levinson
(1978) who defined the hierarchy of strategic politeness in interpersonal conversations.
In 1987, they published a revised version of their theories of politeness. The core concept
of Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory is positive and negative face. Positive face
reflects "an actor’s desire to have the approval of others" and negative face refers to "the


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