All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Freedom of Speech and Segmenting the Citizens
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-10-10582 9 their existing convictions (Sunstein, 2001, p.26). Such a uniform flow of information will deprive the individuals of the ability to make critical evaluations of their existing opinions. In short, the dangers of surveillance come in two interrelated forms: First, the diversity of information any individual receives is likely to decline. Second, the information that individuals do receive will be selected strategically with the purposes of leading them toward accepting a particular view rather than informing them about relevant options. Whether the vice comes in the first form, the second form or both, the result is usually the same: the decision maker is deprived of the ability to make decisions according to “careful analysis, relevant knowledge, study and testing” (Edelman, 2001, p.53). Therefore, as Cohen (1996) suggests, the freedom to read, the freedom to refrain from reading and the freedom to choose what to read, while considered to be related to the passive modes of communication (p.1110), are synergetic to speaking; one can’t exist without the other (p.1025). It is for this reason that First Amendment jurisprudence should use the broader definition of speech that includes both listening (reading) and speaking (writing) as forms of speech (p.1026). It is on the basis of these concerns that we can argue that privacy rights should function so as to protect individuals from becoming the targets of surveillance and related practices that help create profiles that are used to segment people into more manageable and manipulable groups. It is only in this space, outside the circle of the surveillance and segmentation practices, where an individual has a chance to be exposed to the information and ideas she might otherwise miss. b) The Rising Threat of Economic Liberalism and the Fall of Liberal Pluralism According to the ideals of a liberal pluralist model, the various views of different citizens can be effectively represented through competing organized representatives. These competing interests would ideally enjoy equal opportunities to shape the policy debate (Bennett and Manheim, 2001, p.279). The liberal pluralist model assumes that these different

Authors: Popescu, Mihaela. and Baruh, Lemi.
first   previous   Page 10 of 26   next   last



background image
ICA-10-10582
9
their existing convictions (Sunstein, 2001, p.26). Such a uniform flow of information will
deprive the individuals of the ability to make critical evaluations of their existing opinions.
In short, the dangers of surveillance come in two interrelated forms: First, the diversity of
information any individual receives is likely to decline. Second, the information that
individuals do receive will be selected strategically with the purposes of leading them toward
accepting a particular view rather than informing them about relevant options. Whether the
vice comes in the first form, the second form or both, the result is usually the same: the
decision maker is deprived of the ability to make decisions according to “careful analysis,
relevant knowledge, study and testing” (Edelman, 2001, p.53). Therefore, as Cohen (1996)
suggests, the freedom to read, the freedom to refrain from reading and the freedom to choose
what to read, while considered to be related to the passive modes of communication (p.1110),
are synergetic to speaking; one can’t exist without the other (p.1025). It is for this reason that
First Amendment jurisprudence should use the broader definition of speech that includes both
listening (reading) and speaking (writing) as forms of speech (p.1026).
It is on the basis of these concerns that we can argue that privacy rights should function
so as to protect individuals from becoming the targets of surveillance and related practices
that help create profiles that are used to segment people into more manageable and
manipulable groups. It is only in this space, outside the circle of the surveillance and
segmentation practices, where an individual has a chance to be exposed to the information
and ideas she might otherwise miss.
b) The Rising Threat of Economic Liberalism and the Fall of Liberal Pluralism
According to the ideals of a liberal pluralist model, the various views of different
citizens can be effectively represented through competing organized representatives. These
competing interests would ideally enjoy equal opportunities to shape the policy debate
(Bennett and Manheim, 2001, p.279). The liberal pluralist model assumes that these different


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 10 of 26   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.