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Freedom of Speech and Segmenting the Citizens
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-10-10582 12 techniques in order to minimize risks by classifying individuals and rate how likely they are to become hot prospects as opposed to suspects (Gandy, 2002, pp. 5, 6). These surveillance practices are often promoted as a tool of liberation and enhanced sovereignty for individuals as consumers but in fact they lead to an environment in which individuals lose their political sovereignty (Sunstein, 2001, p.45). For all of these reasons, surveillance, profiling and segmentation facilitate the replacement of classical notions of pluralism with the reality of neopluralism. This neopluralism entails the formation of artificial and opportunistic coalitions and the creation of surrogate groups that hide the true purposes of the organizers of the coalition (Bennett and Manheim; 2001, p.389). After this brief exploration of the connection between the neoliberal model and the surveillance practices of corporations, let me now turn to an explanation of the ways in which surveillance threatens important conventions of republican and especially liberal traditions. At risk are plurality and trust, core features of the liberal tradition, which are threatened by the exclusion and polarization of citizens. c) Public Sphere, Plurality and Exclusion According to the Discourse Theory of Habermas (1998), the ideal public sphere must be diversified and autonomous from the influence of money (economic system) and administrative power (public administration) if it is to function as a socially integrating unit of democracy (p.299). Moreover, as Joshua Cohen explains, the deliberation in the public sphere should ideally be free from internal and external biases, and should be all-inclusive (cited in Habermas, 1998, p.305). The claim that the public spheres should be all-inclusive and that the arguments in the public spheres should be free of bias, are two concepts that are closely related to the concept of pluralism. This relation could be best demonstrated with an example from the Federalist Paper 10 that was published by James Madison in 1787. According to Madison, factions, regardless of their size, were groupings that were formed as

Authors: Popescu, Mihaela. and Baruh, Lemi.
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ICA-10-10582
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techniques in order to minimize risks by classifying individuals and rate how likely they are
to become hot prospects as opposed to suspects (Gandy, 2002, pp. 5, 6). These surveillance
practices are often promoted as a tool of liberation and enhanced sovereignty for individuals
as consumers but in fact they lead to an environment in which individuals lose their political
sovereignty (Sunstein, 2001, p.45). For all of these reasons, surveillance, profiling and
segmentation facilitate the replacement of classical notions of pluralism with the reality of
neopluralism. This neopluralism entails the formation of artificial and opportunistic
coalitions and the creation of surrogate groups that hide the true purposes of the organizers of
the coalition (Bennett and Manheim; 2001, p.389).
After this brief exploration of the connection between the neoliberal model and the
surveillance practices of corporations, let me now turn to an explanation of the ways in which
surveillance threatens important conventions of republican and especially liberal traditions.
At risk are plurality and trust, core features of the liberal tradition, which are threatened by
the exclusion and polarization of citizens.
c) Public Sphere, Plurality and Exclusion
According to the Discourse Theory of Habermas (1998), the ideal public sphere must
be diversified and autonomous from the influence of money (economic system) and
administrative power (public administration) if it is to function as a socially integrating unit
of democracy (p.299). Moreover, as Joshua Cohen explains, the deliberation in the public
sphere should ideally be free from internal and external biases, and should be all-inclusive
(cited in Habermas, 1998, p.305). The claim that the public spheres should be all-inclusive
and that the arguments in the public spheres should be free of bias, are two concepts that are
closely related to the concept of pluralism. This relation could be best demonstrated with an
example from the Federalist Paper 10 that was published by James Madison in 1787.
According to Madison, factions, regardless of their size, were groupings that were formed as


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