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How media literacy is defined: A review
Unformatted Document Text:  12 literacy on the notion that media education could increase people’s basic comprehension skills, which would in turn augment people’s ability to understand various aspects of the media, as well as decrease the media’s ability to affect people (Brown, 1991 21 ; Buckingham, 1998; Piette & Giroux, 1997 22 ). Next, a few authors in their description of the element ‘information’, refer to the notion that people should be aware of the fact that media messages are constructions. Criticos (1997), for instance, noted that media education should teach people to see the human agency and manufactured nature of the media (Aufderheide, 1997; Davison, 1992; Greenaway, 1997; Hobbs, 1997, 1998d; Masterman, 1997; Van Driel & Klinkenberg, 1989). A few authors provided a rationale for their decision to include an awareness of the constructed nature of the media in their definition of media literacy. Both Aufderheide (1997) and Criticos (1997) provided a general reason for the importance of media literay, which has been mentioned in previous paragraphs. Additionally, several authors, when outlining media literacy, focus on one specific genre, such as the news. Brown (1991) described a number of projects which focused on this genre 23 . These projects claimed that people should know about the manner in which reality is depicted in the news, and specifically, the bias present in the news (Piette & Giroux, 1997 24 ; Considine, 1997 25 ). Lloyd-Kolkin et al. (1980) developed a media education curriculum, which included teaching people about the decisions made in regard to the nature of the stories presented on the news, their order of presentation, the length of time devoted to them and the selection of accompanying images (Van Driel & Klinkenberg). None of the projects described in the previous paragraph explained why people should be more aware of the contents of and conventions used in the news. Only one project provided a general reason for the importance of media literacy as a whole; the Idaho department of education (Brown, 1991) claimed that media education can enhance the development of critical thinking, as well as reinforce basic comprehension skills (72). The sixth category included those authors who focused specifically on advertising when defining media literacy. Brown (1991) outlined a number of projects 26 which were intent on teaching people to recognize the persuasive arguments present in commercials (Piette & Giroux, 1997 27 ; Considine, 1997 28 ). Other media education projects noted that media literacy included knowing about the purposes and types of commercials. Vooijs and van der Voort (1989) noted that media literacy included understanding the techniques used to create commercials (Buckingham et al., 1990). Only a few of the projects described in the previous paragraphs supplied a rationale for the decision to include knowledge about advertising in their conceptualization of media literacy. Considine (1997 26 ) described how students should be able to recognize the strategies 21 Brown in this case referred to the Idaho state department of education 22 Piette and Giroux referred to the media education program developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication, and the media education program entitled “Selling pictures”, developed by the BFI. 23 The projects that Brown referred to are the ones developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication, the Idaho state department of education, the Singers research team and the US Office of Education. 24 Piette and Giroux referred solely to the media education project developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication. 25 Considine in this case referred to the media education program created by the Minnesota department of Education. 26 Brown specifically mentioned the program developed by WNET in New York, as well as the media education programs developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication and the Idaho state department of education. 27 These authors referred to the media education programs developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication and by WNET in New York. 28 Considine referred to the Carnegie council report ‘Fateful choices’ on marketing and teenagers.

Authors: Rosenbaum, Judith.
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background image
12
literacy on the notion that media education could increase people’s basic comprehension
skills, which would in turn augment people’s ability to understand various aspects of the
media, as well as decrease the media’s ability to affect people (Brown, 1991
21
; Buckingham,
1998; Piette & Giroux, 1997
22
).
Next, a few authors in their description of the element ‘information’, refer to the
notion that people should be aware of the fact that media messages are constructions. Criticos
(1997), for instance, noted that media education should teach people to see the human agency
and manufactured nature of the media (Aufderheide, 1997; Davison, 1992; Greenaway, 1997;
Hobbs, 1997, 1998d; Masterman, 1997; Van Driel & Klinkenberg, 1989).
A few authors provided a rationale for their decision to include an awareness of the
constructed nature of the media in their definition of media literacy. Both Aufderheide (1997)
and Criticos (1997) provided a general reason for the importance of media literay, which has
been mentioned in previous paragraphs.
Additionally, several authors, when outlining media literacy, focus on one specific
genre, such as the news. Brown (1991) described a number of projects which focused on this
genre
23
. These projects claimed that people should know about the manner in which reality is
depicted in the news, and specifically, the bias present in the news (Piette & Giroux, 1997
24
;
Considine, 1997
25
). Lloyd-Kolkin et al. (1980) developed a media education curriculum,
which included teaching people about the decisions made in regard to the nature of the stories
presented on the news, their order of presentation, the length of time devoted to them and the
selection of accompanying images (Van Driel & Klinkenberg).
None of the projects described in the previous paragraph explained why people should
be more aware of the contents of and conventions used in the news. Only one project provided
a general reason for the importance of media literacy as a whole; the Idaho department of
education (Brown, 1991) claimed that media education can enhance the development of
critical thinking, as well as reinforce basic comprehension skills (72).
The sixth category included those authors who focused specifically on advertising
when defining media literacy. Brown (1991) outlined a number of projects
26
which were
intent on teaching people to recognize the persuasive arguments present in commercials
(Piette & Giroux, 1997
27
; Considine, 1997
28
). Other media education projects noted that
media literacy included knowing about the purposes and types of commercials. Vooijs and
van der Voort (1989) noted that media literacy included understanding the techniques used to
create commercials (Buckingham et al., 1990).
Only a few of the projects described in the previous paragraphs supplied a rationale for
the decision to include knowledge about advertising in their conceptualization of media
literacy. Considine (1997
26
) described how students should be able to recognize the strategies
21
Brown in this case referred to the Idaho state department of education
22
Piette and Giroux referred to the media education program developed by the Boston University School of
Public Communication, and the media education program entitled “Selling pictures”, developed by the BFI.
23
The projects that Brown referred to are the ones developed by the Boston University School of Public
Communication, the Idaho state department of education, the Singers research team and the US Office of
Education.
24
Piette and Giroux referred solely to the media education project developed by the Boston University School of
Public Communication.
25
Considine in this case referred to the media education program created by the Minnesota department of
Education.
26
Brown specifically mentioned the program developed by WNET in New York, as well as the media education
programs developed by the Boston University School of Public Communication and the Idaho state department
of education.
27
These authors referred to the media education programs developed by the Boston University School of Public
Communication and by WNET in New York.
28
Considine referred to the Carnegie council report ‘Fateful choices’ on marketing and teenagers.


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