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Analyzing the Production of the Law of Cyberspace
Unformatted Document Text:  5 To study these institutions we chose four historical case studies. They are: NCSA Mosaic web browser developed at the University of Illinois; cookies developed by Netscape; the Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C); and the Apache web server developed by the open source movement. In the interest of providing analysis of the societal institutions within space constraints we have opted to not discuss these case studies. The case studies will be published in a larger work in the future. This Article begins by discussing the development of code in universities and moves on to firms, consortia, and the open source movement. In each section we address the structure of the institution, motivation for development, influences upon the institution, the speed of the development process, and the dissemination of the code. This analysis shows how each societal institution shapes its code in a different manner. II. U NIVERSITIES Universities are an important source of innovative research and development for new technologies. 13 Universities account for over half of all fundamental research within the United States and are the genesis of many technology firms. 14 Many significant communication technologies have emerged from universities including the Internet, reduced-instruction set computing (RISC), and computer graphics. 15 This section shows that code developed within 13 Our focus is on the university’s institutional role in developing information technologies, and hence, our discussion is restricted to the parts of the university engaged in such work and does not include other departments and colleges in a university. 14 Harvey Brooks, Research Universities and the Social Contract for Science, in E MPOWERING T ECHNOLOGY : I MPLEMENTING A U.S. S TRATEGY 202 (Lewis Branscomb ed. 1993) (discussing the role of universities in the nation's technological policy); Edwin Mansfield & Jeong-Yeon Lee, The Modern University: Contributor to Industrial Innovation and Recipient of Industrial R&D Support, 25 R ES . P OL ' Y 1047 (1996) (studying the role of universities on seven major industries in the United States). 15 C OMPUTER S CIENCE AND T ELECOMMUNICATIONS B OARD , N ATIONAL A CADEMY OF S CIENCES , M AKING IT B ETTER : E XPANDING I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY R ESEARCH TO M EET S OCIETY ’ S N EEDS 88 (2000). See also

Authors: Shah, Rajiv. and Kesan, Jay.
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background image
5
To study these institutions we chose four historical case studies. They are: NCSA
Mosaic web browser developed at the University of Illinois; cookies developed by Netscape; the
Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) developed by the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C); and the Apache web server developed by the open source movement. In the interest of
providing analysis of the societal institutions within space constraints we have opted to not
discuss these case studies. The case studies will be published in a larger work in the future.
This Article begins by discussing the development of code in universities and moves on
to firms, consortia, and the open source movement. In each section we address the structure of
the institution, motivation for development, influences upon the institution, the speed of the
development process, and the dissemination of the code. This analysis shows how each societal
institution shapes its code in a different manner.
II. U
NIVERSITIES
Universities are an important source of innovative research and development for new
technologies.
13
Universities account for over half of all fundamental research within the United
States and are the genesis of many technology firms.
14
Many significant communication
technologies have emerged from universities including the Internet, reduced-instruction set
computing (RISC), and computer graphics.
15
This section shows that code developed within
13
Our focus is on the university’s institutional role in developing information technologies, and hence, our
discussion is restricted to the parts of the university engaged in such work and does not include other departments
and colleges in a university.
14
Harvey Brooks, Research Universities and the Social Contract for Science, in E
MPOWERING
T
ECHNOLOGY
:
I
MPLEMENTING A
U.S. S
TRATEGY
202 (Lewis Branscomb ed. 1993) (discussing the role of universities in the nation's
technological policy); Edwin Mansfield & Jeong-Yeon Lee, The Modern University: Contributor to Industrial
Innovation and Recipient of Industrial R&D Support
, 25 R
ES
. P
OL
'
Y
1047 (1996) (studying the role of universities
on seven major industries in the United States).
15
C
OMPUTER
S
CIENCE AND
T
ELECOMMUNICATIONS
B
OARD
, N
ATIONAL
A
CADEMY OF
S
CIENCES
, M
AKING
IT
B
ETTER
: E
XPANDING
I
NFORMATION
T
ECHNOLOGY
R
ESEARCH TO
M
EET
S
OCIETY
S
N
EEDS
88 (2000). See also


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