All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

An Experimental Evaluation of Readers' Perceptions of Media Bias
Unformatted Document Text:  Media Bias - 13 Type of paragraph considered biased To examine the research question concerned with the types of statements readers consider to be biased, we first constructed a simple table of paragraphs by the number of times each was marked as biased. Between the "A" and "B" forms of each article, paragraphs were designated by their specific function, i.e. the first "pro" summary statement and not simply as the second or fourth paragraph (depending on form). These data are presented as Table 2. _______________________________ Table 2 about here _______________________________ To look for pattern in this distribution, we first assumed that respondents were designating paragraphs as biased randomly, that is, we assumed a null hypothesis. This assumption was rejected by a χ 2 test of difference, χ 2(10) = 35.9, p < .001. When we looked at the distribution to see which paragraphs had been selected at rates higher than chance and which lower, we immediately saw the functional distinction displayed in Table 2: the factual paragraphs such as the summary lead were selected less frequently than predicted by chance and the quotations more frequently. We then collapsed the paragraphs into the three functional groups shown in Table 2 and found that paragraphs were not selected randomly across the three functional groups ( χ 2(2) = 44.98, p < .001). Quotations are significantly more likely to be selected than summary statements ( χ 2(1) = 8.64, p < .005), and summary statements more frequently than the factual content paragraphs ( χ 2(1) = 14.53, p < .001). The paragraph across all six forms of the article that participants designated as biased most frequently was a quotation offered by a putative opponent of President Bush who said "He’s increasing defense spending and cutting taxes all over...he’s spending us back into debt again, just like his father." This was the second "con" quote in the Bush topic articles. A number of respondents wrote comments in the margin objecting to the comparison of George W. Bush with George H. W. Bush, and so it is possible that this particular quote might have skewed the results. However, as Table 2 shows, participants selected all of the quotations across all of the topics more frequently than any other statement.

Authors: D'Alessio, Dave.
first   previous   Page 13 of 20   next   last



background image
Media Bias - 13
Type of paragraph considered biased
To examine the research question concerned with the types of statements readers consider to be biased, we
first constructed a simple table of paragraphs by the number of times each was marked as biased. Between the "A" and
"B" forms of each article, paragraphs were designated by their specific function, i.e. the first "pro" summary statement
and not simply as the second or fourth paragraph (depending on form). These data are presented as Table 2.
_______________________________
Table 2 about here
_______________________________
To look for pattern in this distribution, we first assumed that respondents were designating paragraphs as
biased randomly, that is, we assumed a null hypothesis. This assumption was rejected by a
χ
2 test of difference,
χ
2(10)
= 35.9, p < .001.
When we looked at the distribution to see which paragraphs had been selected at rates higher than chance and
which lower, we immediately saw the functional distinction displayed in Table 2: the factual paragraphs such as the
summary lead were selected less frequently than predicted by chance and the quotations more frequently. We then
collapsed the paragraphs into the three functional groups shown in Table 2 and found that paragraphs were not selected
randomly across the three functional groups (
χ
2(2) = 44.98, p < .001). Quotations are significantly more likely to be
selected than summary statements (
χ
2(1) = 8.64, p < .005), and summary statements more frequently than the factual
content paragraphs (
χ
2(1) = 14.53, p < .001).
The paragraph across all six forms of the article that participants designated as biased most frequently was a
quotation offered by a putative opponent of President Bush who said "He’s increasing defense spending and cutting
taxes all over...he’s spending us back into debt again, just like his father." This was the second "con" quote in the Bush
topic articles. A number of respondents wrote comments in the margin objecting to the comparison of George W. Bush
with George H. W. Bush, and so it is possible that this particular quote might have skewed the results. However, as
Table 2 shows, participants selected all of the quotations across all of the topics more frequently than any other
statement.


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 13 of 20   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.