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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 10 Bargh and Pietromonaco (1982) exposed participants to a single word, some of which were related to hostility. Unknowingly exposed to the word, participants read a brief description of a person and evaluated the individual. Researchers found participants exposed to more hostile words were inclined to negatively evaluate an individual than participants exposed to less hostile words. The message from this study directly relates to the aforementioned studies suggesting individuals exposed consciously or subconsciously to aggressive related content can be expected to display more aggressive-related content than individuals exposed to non-aggressive content. Jo and Berkowitz (1994) suggest, despite a shortage of research on radio and aggressive-related consequences, it is reasonable to assume radio depictions can activate negative thoughts and actions given the prevalence of violent music content. Such content has celebrated violent behaviors and acts and is well documented (Christenson & Roberts, 1998). In light of this shortcoming, Smith (1995) found that participants exposed to violent lyrics delivered longer shocks to a fictitious confederate than participants exposed to less violent lyrics. Similarly, Quick (2002) conducted an experiment measuring the effects of music (non-violent music with non-violent lyrics, violent music with no lyrics, and violent music with violent lyrics) on college students’ thoughts, state anger, driving anger, and levels of self-reported retaliation when confronted by a reckless driver. Quick discovered that respondents exposed to violent music with violent lyrics displayed the strongest state anger and number of aggressive than the other two conditions (Quick, 2002). On the contrary, Wanamaker and Reznikoff (1989) had subjects write a story about five ambiguous pictures while being exposed to either aggressive music with aggressive lyrics, aggressive music with non-aggressive lyrics, or

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
10
Bargh and Pietromonaco (1982) exposed participants to a single word, some of
which were related to hostility. Unknowingly exposed to the word, participants read a
brief description of a person and evaluated the individual. Researchers found participants
exposed to more hostile words were inclined to negatively evaluate an individual than
participants exposed to less hostile words. The message from this study directly relates to
the aforementioned studies suggesting individuals exposed consciously or subconsciously
to aggressive related content can be expected to display more aggressive-related content
than individuals exposed to non-aggressive content.
Jo and Berkowitz (1994) suggest, despite a shortage of research on radio and
aggressive-related consequences, it is reasonable to assume radio depictions can activate
negative thoughts and actions given the prevalence of violent music content. Such
content has celebrated violent behaviors and acts and is well documented (Christenson &
Roberts, 1998). In light of this shortcoming, Smith (1995) found that participants exposed
to violent lyrics delivered longer shocks to a fictitious confederate than participants
exposed to less violent lyrics. Similarly, Quick (2002) conducted an experiment
measuring the effects of music (non-violent music with non-violent lyrics, violent music
with no lyrics, and violent music with violent lyrics) on college students’ thoughts, state
anger, driving anger, and levels of self-reported retaliation when confronted by a reckless
driver. Quick discovered that respondents exposed to violent music with violent lyrics
displayed the strongest state anger and number of aggressive than the other two
conditions (Quick, 2002). On the contrary, Wanamaker and Reznikoff (1989) had
subjects write a story about five ambiguous pictures while being exposed to either
aggressive music with aggressive lyrics, aggressive music with non-aggressive lyrics, or


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