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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 11 non-aggressive music with non-aggressive lyrics. Theses researchers did not find significant differences in the amount of hostility expressed in the stories. One explanation for this anomaly is the experimental design. Having subjects listen repeatedly to the same song for 20-minutes poses a serious threat to internal validity. This study, like others, fails to provide a longitudinal perspective due to the cross-sectional experimental design. Berkowitz’s model illuminates the cognitive process of being inflicted by an aversive event. It is my contention that an aversive event, such as being cut off by another driver, will provoke some degree of anger. However, we must not underestimate the function music serves in society, particularly while driving. Arguably, music pervades drivers more frequently than other mass mediums. Previous research demonstrates that participants exposed to violent music with violent lyrics are cognitively primed with more aggressive thoughts (Quick, 2002), longer shocks (Smith, 1995), and state anger (Quick, 2002) than participants exposed to non-violent music. Given these findings: H1: Respondent’s negative-valenced thoughts will linearly increase as the level of music violence increases. H2: Respondent’s driving anger will linearly increase as the level of music violence increases. H3: Respondent’s state anger will linearly increase as the level of music violence increases. Previous research has also shown that certain music genres can act as a coping mechanism for dealing with traffic congestion, thus reducing anger (Hennessy & Wiesenthal, 1997)

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
11
non-aggressive music with non-aggressive lyrics. Theses researchers did not find
significant differences in the amount of hostility expressed in the stories. One explanation
for this anomaly is the experimental design. Having subjects listen repeatedly to the same
song for 20-minutes poses a serious threat to internal validity. This study, like others,
fails to provide a longitudinal perspective due to the cross-sectional experimental design.
Berkowitz’s model illuminates the cognitive process of being inflicted by an
aversive event. It is my contention that an aversive event, such as being cut off by another
driver, will provoke some degree of anger. However, we must not underestimate the
function music serves in society, particularly while driving. Arguably, music pervades
drivers more frequently than other mass mediums. Previous research demonstrates that
participants exposed to violent music with violent lyrics are cognitively primed with
more aggressive thoughts (Quick, 2002), longer shocks (Smith, 1995), and state anger
(Quick, 2002) than participants exposed to non-violent music. Given these findings:
H1: Respondent’s negative-valenced thoughts will linearly increase as the level of
music violence increases.
H2: Respondent’s driving anger will linearly increase as the level of music
violence increases.
H3: Respondent’s state anger will linearly increase as the level of music violence
increases.
Previous research has also shown that certain music genres can act as a coping
mechanism for dealing with traffic congestion, thus reducing anger (Hennessy &
Wiesenthal, 1997)


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