A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
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dimension: anger ( = .82), hostility ( = .83), physical aggression ( = .85), and verbal
aggression ( = .78).
Driving anger scale. The 14-item short version of Deffenbacher et al’s. (1994)
Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving anger. The scale consists of six
clusters: hostile gestures, illegal driving, police presence, slow driving, discourtesy, and
traffic obstructions. The items were measured on a 7-point scale with 1 = no anger and 7
= high anger. The measure was reliability of ( = .88).
Impulsiveness scale. A shortened 9-item version of Eysenck, Pearson, Easting,
and Allsop’s (1985) L7 scale was utilized for this study. The items were measured on a 7-
point scale with 1 = no and 7 = yes, and the measure was reliable ( = .79).
State-anger scale. Spielberger, Jacobs, Russell, and Crane’s (1983) State-Trait
Anger Scale (SAS) consists of 30 items. The items are measured on a 7-point scale with 1
= not at all like me, and 7 = very much like me. Reliability for the 15-item state anger
measure was extremely good ( = .93).
Thought-listing. Cacioppo and Petty (1981) designed this method to obtain
cognitive responses from respondents. Respondents reported all thoughts occurring to
them while listening to the music. Respondents were given three minutes to list their
thoughts, which is consistent with the instructions provided by Cacioppo and Petty
(1981). The researcher and another trained coder identified each thought as either a
neutral, negative, or a positive thought. The inter coder reliability of ( = .93) for simple
agreement resulting in an overall kappa of (k = .89). Thought valence was calculated as
the difference between negative thoughts and positive thoughts divided by total thoughts.