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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 19 non-violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = .17, SD = .49) than when listening to no music (M = -.03, SD = .29), t(49) = -2.96, p < .01. Similarly, respondents were exposed to non-violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = 4.17, SD = 1.09) their level of driving anger was significantly less than while exposed to no music (M = 4.66, SD = 1.02), t(49) = 3.81, p < .001. Likewise, analyses revealed that as respondents were exposed to non- violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = 1.46, SD = .82) their level of state anger was significantly less than while exposed to no music (M = 1.78, SD = .99), t(49) = 2.48, p < .05. Hypothesis 5: Negative Valence-Thoughts & State Anger as Predictors of Driving Anger The fifth hypothesis, which predicted the level of state anger and the number of negative-valence thoughts would predict driving anger in each music condition, was evaluated using a series of linear regressions. A standard multiple regression analysis was performed between the dependent variable (driving anger) and the independent variables (negative valence thoughts and state anger) within the music conditions with violent music with no lyrics and violent music with violent lyrics. Regression analysis revealed a significant model for participants exposed to violent music with no lyrics, F(2, 47) = 3.06, p = .057, R 2 = .12. In terms of individual relationships between the independent variables and driving anger, state anger was a significant predictor of driving anger (t = 2.26, p < .05, = .32) but negative valence thoughts were not a predictor (t = -.56, p = .58, = -.08). When participants were exposed to violent music with violent lyrics the model reached significance, F(2, 47) = 14.93, p < .001, R 2 = .39. The independent variable state anger was significant (t = 5.26, p < .001, = .62) but negative valence thoughts were not a significant predictor of driving anger (t = -.03, p > .05, = -.004).

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
19
non-violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = .17, SD = .49) than when listening to no
music (M = -.03, SD = .29), t(49) = -2.96, p < .01. Similarly, respondents were exposed to
non-violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = 4.17, SD = 1.09) their level of driving
anger was significantly less than while exposed to no music (M = 4.66, SD = 1.02), t(49)
= 3.81, p < .001. Likewise, analyses revealed that as respondents were exposed to non-
violent music with non-violent lyrics (M = 1.46, SD = .82) their level of state anger was
significantly less than while exposed to no music (M = 1.78, SD = .99), t(49) = 2.48, p <
.05.
Hypothesis 5: Negative Valence-Thoughts & State Anger as Predictors of Driving Anger
The fifth hypothesis, which predicted the level of state anger and the number of
negative-valence thoughts would predict driving anger in each music condition, was
evaluated using a series of linear regressions. A standard multiple regression analysis was
performed between the dependent variable (driving anger) and the independent variables
(negative valence thoughts and state anger) within the music conditions with violent
music with no lyrics and violent music with violent lyrics. Regression analysis revealed a
significant model for participants exposed to violent music with no lyrics, F(2, 47) =
3.06, p = .057, R
2
= .12. In terms of individual relationships between the independent
variables and driving anger, state anger was a significant predictor of driving anger (t =
2.26, p < .05,
= .32) but negative valence thoughts were not a predictor (t = -.56, p =
.58, = -.08). When participants were exposed to violent music with violent lyrics the
model reached significance, F(2, 47) = 14.93, p < .001, R
2
= .39. The independent
variable state anger was significant (t = 5.26, p < .001, = .62) but negative valence
thoughts were not a significant predictor of driving anger (t = -.03, p > .05,
= -.004).


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