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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 22 Discussion The results of this study contribute significantly to Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994) priming effects model and offers practical implications to the radio broadcast industry in furthering our understanding of music effects on driving anger, negative-valence thoughts, and state anger. Building on Hennessy and Wiesenthal (1997) and Quick’s (2002) work, the present study entails a more comprehensive understanding of the short- term effects of music on cognition by using a within subjects design. Previous research has explored visual media (e.g., Bushman & Geen, 1990) but a paucity of research has explored audio-only mediums. Additionally, researchers using one-shot experimental designs (e.g., Berkowitz, 1986) to validate findings have been criticized (e.g., Abelman & Atkin, 1999). This study has major implications for communication researchers studying priming effects and the radio broadcast industry. Implications for Communication Researchers First, within-subjects effects analyses over the four conditions indicated a significant quadratic contrast for driving anger, negative-valence thoughts, and state anger thus providing strong evidence for Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994) model. As expected, college students demonstrated moderate driving anger (e.g., Lajunen, et al., 1997; Quick, 2002) with minimal negative-valence thoughts and state anger while being exposed to no music. As previously indicated by Hennessy and Wiesenthal (1997), participants in this study experienced less negative-valence thoughts and state anger while exposed to non- violent music with non-violent lyrics compared to baseline responses whereas reported levels of negative thoughts and state anger increased linearly as the level of music violence increases. Not surprisingly, driving anger in the current study along with past

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
22
Discussion
The results of this study contribute significantly to Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994)
priming effects model and offers practical implications to the radio broadcast industry in
furthering our understanding of music effects on driving anger, negative-valence
thoughts, and state anger. Building on Hennessy and Wiesenthal (1997) and Quick’s
(2002) work, the present study entails a more comprehensive understanding of the short-
term effects of music on cognition by using a within subjects design. Previous research
has explored visual media (e.g., Bushman & Geen, 1990) but a paucity of research has
explored audio-only mediums. Additionally, researchers using one-shot experimental
designs (e.g., Berkowitz, 1986) to validate findings have been criticized (e.g., Abelman &
Atkin, 1999). This study has major implications for communication researchers studying
priming effects and the radio broadcast industry.
Implications for Communication Researchers
First, within-subjects effects analyses over the four conditions indicated a
significant quadratic contrast for driving anger, negative-valence thoughts, and state
anger thus providing strong evidence for Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994) model. As expected,
college students demonstrated moderate driving anger (e.g., Lajunen, et al., 1997; Quick,
2002) with minimal negative-valence thoughts and state anger while being exposed to no
music. As previously indicated by Hennessy and Wiesenthal (1997), participants in this
study experienced less negative-valence thoughts and state anger while exposed to non-
violent music with non-violent lyrics compared to baseline responses whereas reported
levels of negative thoughts and state anger increased linearly as the level of music
violence increases. Not surprisingly, driving anger in the current study along with past


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