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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 23 studies (e.g., Quick, 2002) was not significantly affected by music. These findings plausibly suggest driving anger is a trait, resisting ardent music influences despite reporting significant increases in negative-valence thoughts and state anger. Second, this study contributes to the literature in identifying predictors of driving anger. In both conditions where participants were exposed to violent music, results revealed state anger significantly predicted driving anger; hence, the more state anger one experienced the greater the likelihood of driving anger. This finding is noteworthy given that music significantly affects state anger in each of the three music conditions. Despite expecting negative-valence thoughts to predict driving anger, this study did not support this expectation. However, while participants were exposed to non-violent music with non-violent lyrics, negative valence thoughts interestingly predicted state anger. This finding prevents conclusions disregarding the effects of thoughts on state and driving anger giving Berkowitz’s (1993) network assumptions. Berkowitz’s (1993) cognitive neo-associationistic model assumes an emotional state is best regarded as an association network, which suggests an activation of state anger will activate driving anger to some degree. Theoretically speaking, priming effects provides an appropriate model in understanding the relationship between violent music and anger. Given the salience of driving anger within society, communication researchers must continue to explore music effects on cognition. As elucidated here, individuals possessing high and low trait aggression, hostility, impulsiveness, and venturesomeness were not affected differently by the music conditions, with the exception being trait anger, contrasting DePasquale et al. (2001) suggestion.

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
23
studies (e.g., Quick, 2002) was not significantly affected by music. These findings
plausibly suggest driving anger is a trait, resisting ardent music influences despite
reporting significant increases in negative-valence thoughts and state anger.
Second, this study contributes to the literature in identifying predictors of driving
anger. In both conditions where participants were exposed to violent music, results
revealed state anger significantly predicted driving anger; hence, the more state anger one
experienced the greater the likelihood of driving anger. This finding is noteworthy given
that music significantly affects state anger in each of the three music conditions. Despite
expecting negative-valence thoughts to predict driving anger, this study did not support
this expectation. However, while participants were exposed to non-violent music with
non-violent lyrics, negative valence thoughts interestingly predicted state anger. This
finding prevents conclusions disregarding the effects of thoughts on state and driving
anger giving Berkowitz’s (1993) network assumptions.
Berkowitz’s (1993) cognitive neo-associationistic model assumes an emotional
state is best regarded as an association network, which suggests an activation of state
anger will activate driving anger to some degree. Theoretically speaking, priming effects
provides an appropriate model in understanding the relationship between violent music
and anger. Given the salience of driving anger within society, communication researchers
must continue to explore music effects on cognition. As elucidated here, individuals
possessing high and low trait aggression, hostility, impulsiveness, and venturesomeness
were not affected differently by the music conditions, with the exception being trait
anger, contrasting DePasquale et al. (2001) suggestion.


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