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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 24 Further research examining the effects of music on driving anger is warranted; specifically, experiments randomly placing participants in driving simulators while being exposed to random music genres [e.g., rap (violent lyrics/non-violent lyrics)] to more realistically captivate the driving experience. Rap music elicits the angriest responses according to Ballard and Coates (1995) and should be utilized in future experiments. Furthermore, future research should examine the priming effects of music for an individual listening to self-selected music in their vehicle where listening is not the main priority (Atkin & Abelman, 1999). Such research should continue to implement repeated measure experimental designs allowing for baseline comparisons within individuals allowing causal claims. More studies of this magnitude will illuminate the relationship between music and driving anger. Implications for the Radio Broadcast Industry The results of this study in alliance with previous research have pragmatic implications for the radio broadcast industry. Given the short-term effects violent music has on cognition, the radio broadcast industry must err on the side of caution when programming music containing violent messages or aggressive beats. Although one cannot rationally generalize from the findings in this study or past studies (e.g., Smith, 1995), a conservative assertion suggests music has a short-term effect on cognition (i.e., violent music stimulates increased state anger whereas non-violent music stimulates decreased state anger). These findings linked with other past findings such as disruptive traffic (e.g., Lajunen, et al., 1998), traffic congestion (e.g., Vest, et al., 1997), and sunny weather conditions (e.g., Rathbone, 1999) as predictors to driving anger illicit concern. Violent music coupled with any of these situations constitutes a grave probability of

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
24
Further research examining the effects of music on driving anger is warranted;
specifically, experiments randomly placing participants in driving simulators while being
exposed to random music genres [e.g., rap (violent lyrics/non-violent lyrics)] to more
realistically captivate the driving experience. Rap music elicits the angriest responses
according to Ballard and Coates (1995) and should be utilized in future experiments.
Furthermore, future research should examine the priming effects of music for an
individual listening to self-selected music in their vehicle where listening is not the main
priority (Atkin & Abelman, 1999). Such research should continue to implement repeated
measure experimental designs allowing for baseline comparisons within individuals
allowing causal claims. More studies of this magnitude will illuminate the relationship
between music and driving anger.
Implications for the Radio Broadcast Industry
The results of this study in alliance with previous research have pragmatic
implications for the radio broadcast industry. Given the short-term effects violent music
has on cognition, the radio broadcast industry must err on the side of caution when
programming music containing violent messages or aggressive beats. Although one
cannot rationally generalize from the findings in this study or past studies (e.g., Smith,
1995), a conservative assertion suggests music has a short-term effect on cognition (i.e.,
violent music stimulates increased state anger whereas non-violent music stimulates
decreased state anger). These findings linked with other past findings such as disruptive
traffic (e.g., Lajunen, et al., 1998), traffic congestion (e.g., Vest, et al., 1997), and sunny
weather conditions (e.g., Rathbone, 1999) as predictors to driving anger illicit concern.
Violent music coupled with any of these situations constitutes a grave probability of


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