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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 5 The strength of each tendency is determined largely by one’s learned behaviors and situational influences. For instance, Baron (1977) found that situational influences affect aggression levels when he exposed participants to unpleasantly hot room temperatures. As a result of the temperatures, the participants expressed greater hostility and displayed stronger aggression towards a stranger than participants in normal room temperatures. In addition to temperatures, Rathbone (1999) found situational influences such as the weather (e.g., sunny), time of day (e.g., 6-8 a.m., 4-6 p.m.), and day of the week (e.g., Friday) are predictors of extreme aggressive driving prevalence. In addition to these situational influences, Vest, Cohen, and Tharp (1997) found that traffic congestion also serves as a catalyst to driving anger. They stated from 1969 to 1990 the number of female drivers increased by 84%, resulting in increased traffic congestion and driver anger. Regarding traffic congestion, Lajunen, Parker, and Stradling (1998) interestingly found drivers coming into contact with traffic situations that disrupted their progress are more likely to confess aggressive traffic violations. Berkowitz’s (1993) model shows that the rudimentary anger experience develops from the conscious and preconscious awareness of the initial anger/aggression reactions. Past research has also examined learned behaviors. Recently, Arnett et al. (1997) found aggressive individuals, both younger adolescents and young adults, were classified as being sensation seekers and reckless drivers. In a similar study, DePasquale et al. (2001) found drivers possessing impulsiveness alone might not necessarily respond with hostility to aversive driving conditions. DePasquale et al. (2001) suggested that drivers who score high on venturesomeness are likely to drive risky; however, the authors found no correlation between venturesomeness and a propensity to drive angry. These

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
5
The strength of each tendency is determined largely by one’s learned behaviors
and situational influences. For instance, Baron (1977) found that situational influences
affect aggression levels when he exposed participants to unpleasantly hot room
temperatures. As a result of the temperatures, the participants expressed greater hostility
and displayed stronger aggression towards a stranger than participants in normal room
temperatures. In addition to temperatures, Rathbone (1999) found situational influences
such as the weather (e.g., sunny), time of day (e.g., 6-8 a.m., 4-6 p.m.), and day of the
week (e.g., Friday) are predictors of extreme aggressive driving prevalence. In addition to
these situational influences, Vest, Cohen, and Tharp (1997) found that traffic congestion
also serves as a catalyst to driving anger. They stated from 1969 to 1990 the number of
female drivers increased by 84%, resulting in increased traffic congestion and driver
anger. Regarding traffic congestion, Lajunen, Parker, and Stradling (1998) interestingly
found drivers coming into contact with traffic situations that disrupted their progress are
more likely to confess aggressive traffic violations. Berkowitz’s (1993) model shows that
the rudimentary anger experience develops from the conscious and preconscious
awareness of the initial anger/aggression reactions.
Past research has also examined learned behaviors. Recently, Arnett et al. (1997)
found aggressive individuals, both younger adolescents and young adults, were classified
as being sensation seekers and reckless drivers. In a similar study, DePasquale et al.
(2001) found drivers possessing impulsiveness alone might not necessarily respond with
hostility to aversive driving conditions. DePasquale et al. (2001) suggested that drivers
who score high on venturesomeness are likely to drive risky; however, the authors found
no correlation between venturesomeness and a propensity to drive angry. These


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