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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 6 researchers suggest that when an aversive event is coupled with environmental stimuli (i.e., violent music), drivers characterized as sensation seekers have a proclivity to aggress. For instance, a driver possessing a high degree of anger (both state and trait), hostility, and aggression (physical and verbal), can be expected to react with a fight tendency while confronting an aversive event. After one experiences either rudimentary anger or fear as a result of being cut off by another driver, one engages in complicated appraisals, interpretations, schemas, attributions, and strategies (Berkowitz, 1993). As a result, other emotional states arise as individuals build perceptions about the emotions they are feeling. According to Berkowitz (1993), the anger construction is aided by the availability of specific targets for aggression. Therefore, we can expect individuals to perceive themselves as angry when they experience strong feelings and regard themselves as being deliberately mistreated by the other driver. Sometimes individuals will engage in higher order cognitive processing. When engaged in higher-order cognitive processing, one may consider the perceived causes of the arousal (e.g., the other driver’s fault or my fault?), the social rules regarding the appropriateness of the experienced emotion (e.g., is my anger appropriate?), the consequences of acting on one’s emotions (e.g., what might happen if I honk my horn?), and ideas and memories of previous related occurrences. To a greater or lesser extent depending on how much thought one gives to the process, he or she theoretically combines these items of information, resulting in the emotional experience (Berkowitz, 1993).

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
6
researchers suggest that when an aversive event is coupled with environmental stimuli
(i.e., violent music), drivers characterized as sensation seekers have a proclivity to
aggress. For instance, a driver possessing a high degree of anger (both state and trait),
hostility, and aggression (physical and verbal), can be expected to react with a fight
tendency while confronting an aversive event.
After one experiences either rudimentary anger or fear as a result of being cut off
by another driver, one engages in complicated appraisals, interpretations, schemas,
attributions, and strategies (Berkowitz, 1993). As a result, other emotional states arise as
individuals build perceptions about the emotions they are feeling. According to
Berkowitz (1993), the anger construction is aided by the availability of specific targets
for aggression. Therefore, we can expect individuals to perceive themselves as angry
when they experience strong feelings and regard themselves as being deliberately
mistreated by the other driver.
Sometimes individuals will engage in higher order cognitive processing. When
engaged in higher-order cognitive processing, one may consider the perceived causes of
the arousal (e.g., the other driver’s fault or my fault?), the social rules regarding the
appropriateness of the experienced emotion (e.g., is my anger appropriate?), the
consequences of acting on one’s emotions (e.g., what might happen if I honk my horn?),
and ideas and memories of previous related occurrences. To a greater or lesser extent
depending on how much thought one gives to the process, he or she theoretically
combines these items of information, resulting in the emotional experience (Berkowitz,
1993).


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