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A Longitudinal Study Examining The Priming Effects of Music on Driving Anger, State Anger, and Negative-Valence Thoughts
Unformatted Document Text:  Violent Music 8 Priming Effects Arguably, mass mediated messages have an effect on their audience. From studies conducted over the past two decades, Jo and Berkowitz (1994) assert the question is no longer, do individuals act more violently after being exposed to violent content, but rather in what conditions this influence happens. Berkowitz (1986) discovered mass media messages can have a short-term effect on thoughts and actions for adults and children. Jo and Berkowitz (1994) summarize priming effects as: when people witness, read, or hear of an event via the mass media, ideas having a similar meaning are activated in them for a short time afterwards, and that these thoughts in turn can activate other semantically related ideas and action tendencies. (p. 45) Priming analysis is derived from Berkowitz’s (1993) cognitive-neoassociationistic perspective. The theoretical model Jo and Berkowitz (1994) propose suggests that ideas with emotional significance are linked to particular feelings and motor programs. These ideas arouse feelings and action tendencies associated with the emotions. For instance, Ben is driving down the road listening to a song by his favorite rock-and-roll band on the radio. The violent lyrics and expeditious beat prime ideas inside Ben’s cognitive networks that arouse feelings of anger and potentially increase his propensity to aggress during the song. In summary, Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994) analysis suggests that for a short period of time after a medium portrays violence there is an increased chance receivers will (a) have hostile thoughts that can affect their interpretations of others, (b) believe forms of aggression are justified, and (c) be inclined to behave aggressively. Within the political communication literature, media priming was used to study audience members’

Authors: Quick, Brian.
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Violent Music
8
Priming Effects
Arguably, mass mediated messages have an effect on their audience. From studies
conducted over the past two decades, Jo and Berkowitz (1994) assert the question is no
longer, do individuals act more violently after being exposed to violent content, but rather
in what conditions this influence happens. Berkowitz (1986) discovered mass media
messages can have a short-term effect on thoughts and actions for adults and children. Jo
and Berkowitz (1994) summarize priming effects as:
when people witness, read, or hear of an event via the mass media, ideas having a
similar meaning are activated in them for a short time afterwards, and that these
thoughts in turn can activate other semantically related ideas and action
tendencies. (p. 45)
Priming analysis is derived from Berkowitz’s (1993) cognitive-neoassociationistic
perspective. The theoretical model Jo and Berkowitz (1994) propose suggests that ideas
with emotional significance are linked to particular feelings and motor programs. These
ideas arouse feelings and action tendencies associated with the emotions. For instance,
Ben is driving down the road listening to a song by his favorite rock-and-roll band on the
radio. The violent lyrics and expeditious beat prime ideas inside Ben’s cognitive
networks that arouse feelings of anger and potentially increase his propensity to aggress
during the song. In summary, Jo and Berkowitz’s (1994) analysis suggests that for a short
period of time after a medium portrays violence there is an increased chance receivers
will (a) have hostile thoughts that can affect their interpretations of others, (b) believe
forms of aggression are justified, and (c) be inclined to behave aggressively. Within the
political communication literature, media priming was used to study audience members’


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