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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Unformatted Document Text:  A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression Page 1 of 23 Abstract The study of pornography’s potential influence on sexual aggression requires embedding this focus within a broader model that encompasses other relevant factors as well. This study tests a model of sexual aggression that incorporates general antisocial personality characteristics and factors specific to sexual aggression, such as sexual promiscuity, attitudes condoning violence against women and pornography consumption. Results generally indicate strong support for the hypothesized model. Regression analyses demonstrated that, as expected, hostility towards women and an impersonal orientation to sex interact to predict sexual aggression, and that pornography consumption augments this interaction. Structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that general ’hostile’ personality factors indirectly influence sexual aggression, and that this indirect relationship is mediated by hostility specifically directed at women. This research therefore successfully integrates factors common to sexual aggression research conducted in both the criminal and non-criminal populations, and models the role of pornography consumption within this broader integration. Introduction The Confluence Model Identifying the characteristics that differentiate between sexually aggressive and nonagggressive men illuminates the causes of such antisocial behavior (Malamuth, in press). The “Confluence Model” of sexual aggression has been developed to accomplish this goal and has had considerable success in both cross-sectional and longitudinal prediction of sexual aggression (Malamuth, Linz, Heavey, Barnes, & Acker, 1995; Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This model hypothesizes that sexual aggression occurs as a result of the interactive combination of two sets of characteristics or paths labeled “Hostile Masculinity” (HM) and “Impersonal Sex” (IS), (Malamuth et al., 1991). As a “cumulative conditional probability model,” (Belsky, Teinberg, & Draper, 1991), certain clusters of risk factors are more likely to appear together, and the combined presence of certain risk factors has more than a simple additive effect on the likelihood of the outcome (e.g. a synergistic effect). The Hostile Masculinity Path is described as a personality profile combining two interrelated components: a) an insecure, defensive, hypersensitive, and hostile-distrustful orientation, particularly towards women, and b) gratification from controlling or dominating women. The hostile and domineering orientation characterized by the Hostile Masculinity construct is associated with sexually aggressive attitudes, beliefs and behavior (Briere & Malamuth 1983; Koss, Leonard, Beezley, & Oros, 1985; Koss & Dinero, 1988; Hall, Howard, & Boezio, 1986; Hall, 1989; Muelenhard & Linton, 1987; Malamuth, 1986; Dean and Malamuth, 1997; Malamuth et al., 1991, 1995; Malamuth & Thornhill, 1994).

Authors: vega, vanessa. and Malamuth, Neil.
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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Page 1 of 23
Abstract

The study of pornography’s potential influence on sexual aggression requires embedding
this focus within a broader model that encompasses other relevant factors as well. This
study tests a model of sexual aggression that incorporates general antisocial personality
characteristics and factors specific to sexual aggression, such as sexual promiscuity,
attitudes condoning violence against women and pornography consumption. Results
generally indicate strong support for the hypothesized model. Regression analyses
demonstrated that, as expected, hostility towards women and an impersonal orientation to
sex interact to predict sexual aggression, and that pornography consumption augments
this interaction. Structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that general
’hostile’ personality factors indirectly influence sexual aggression, and that this indirect
relationship is mediated by hostility specifically directed at women. This research
therefore successfully integrates factors common to sexual aggression research conducted
in both the criminal and non-criminal populations, and models the role of pornography
consumption within this broader integration.
Introduction

The Confluence Model

Identifying the characteristics that differentiate between sexually aggressive and
nonagggressive men illuminates the causes of such antisocial behavior (Malamuth, in
press). The “Confluence Model” of sexual aggression has been developed to accomplish
this goal and has had considerable success in both cross-sectional and longitudinal
prediction of sexual aggression (Malamuth, Linz, Heavey, Barnes, & Acker, 1995;
Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This model hypothesizes that sexual
aggression occurs as a result of the interactive combination of two sets of characteristics
or paths labeled “Hostile Masculinity” (HM) and “Impersonal Sex” (IS), (Malamuth et
al., 1991). As a “cumulative conditional probability model,” (Belsky, Teinberg, &
Draper, 1991), certain clusters of risk factors are more likely to appear together, and the
combined presence of certain risk factors has more than a simple additive effect on the
likelihood of the outcome (e.g. a synergistic effect).
The Hostile Masculinity Path is described as a personality profile combining two
interrelated components: a) an insecure, defensive, hypersensitive, and hostile-distrustful
orientation, particularly towards women, and b) gratification from controlling or
dominating women. The hostile and domineering orientation characterized by the Hostile
Masculinity construct is associated with sexually aggressive attitudes, beliefs and
behavior (Briere & Malamuth 1983; Koss, Leonard, Beezley, & Oros, 1985; Koss &
Dinero, 1988; Hall, Howard, & Boezio, 1986; Hall, 1989; Muelenhard & Linton, 1987;
Malamuth, 1986; Dean and Malamuth, 1997; Malamuth et al., 1991, 1995; Malamuth &
Thornhill, 1994).


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