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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Unformatted Document Text:  A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression Page 13 of 23 0.05; = 0.48, p < 0.05). Additionally, Sexually Explicit Media showed an indirect effect on sexual aggression (p < 0.05) through its influence on the 3-way interaction term, and General Hostility did not evince an indirect effect on the 3-way interaction term, (P >0.10) Tests of Mediational Effects According to Baron and Kenny (1986), mediational models must meet the following criteria: First, the predictor variable significantly predicts both the mediating variable and the outcome variable. Second, the path between the predictor variable and the outcome variable is significantly reduced when the mediating variable is controlled for. Third, the path from the mediating variable to the outcome variable is significant when the predictor variable is controlled for. The four mediational hypotheses were tested both in isolation and as embedded in the larger path analysis. In all four cases, both sets of analyses revealed the same pattern of results. Thus, we describe in detail only the results of the embedded tests. The first test was supported. General Hostility directly predicts Hostile Masculinity, ( = 0.61, p < 0.05), and indirectly predicts Sexual Aggression through its effect on Hostile Masculinity ( = 0.27, p < 0.01). The second test was also supported. The path between General Hostility and Sexual Aggression was significantly reduced when Hostile Masculinity was controlled for. A path directly from General Hostility to Sexual Aggression did not exhibit significant influence (p > 0.10). The third test was also supported. As evidenced in Figure 5, the path from Hostile Masculinity to Sexual Aggression was significant when the entire General Hostility construct was controlled for. Discussion The results generally support the development of the Confluence Model into what will be referred to here as a “hierarchical-mediation” model, (Malamuth, in press). The hypothesis that the confluence between Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex was an important predictor of participants’ self-reported history of committing sexual coercion and/or assault was generally supported by hierarchical regression analyses. In the current study, IS was not a significant predictor by itself; however, it did interact with other terms significantly in the predicted direction. The hypothesized interaction between the Confluence Model and sexually explicit media was strongly supported by ANOVA analyses and also structural equation modeling. The 3-way interaction between HM, IS and pornography had not been rendered in structural equation modeling before, but performed as expected, demonstrating significant indirect effects on sexual aggression. The refined measurement of the pornography variable in the present study and its successfully replicated interaction effects should yield increased confidence in the hypothesis that pornography indirectly and significantly influences sexual aggression. As a general approach to media research, these results illustrate the importance of examining the media within a broader context and understanding the media’s complex

Authors: vega, vanessa. and Malamuth, Neil.
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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Page 13 of 23
0.05;
= 0.48, p < 0.05). Additionally, Sexually Explicit Media showed an indirect
effect on sexual aggression (p < 0.05) through its influence on the 3-way interaction term,
and General Hostility did not evince an indirect effect on the 3-way interaction term, (P >
0.10)
Tests of Mediational Effects

According to Baron and Kenny (1986), mediational models must meet the following
criteria: First, the predictor variable significantly predicts both the mediating variable and
the outcome variable. Second, the path between the predictor variable and the outcome
variable is significantly reduced when the mediating variable is controlled for. Third, the
path from the mediating variable to the outcome variable is significant when the predictor
variable is controlled for. The four mediational hypotheses were tested both in isolation
and as embedded in the larger path analysis. In all four cases, both sets of analyses
revealed the same pattern of results. Thus, we describe in detail only the results of the
embedded tests.
The first test was supported. General Hostility directly predicts Hostile
Masculinity, ( = 0.61, p < 0.05), and indirectly predicts Sexual Aggression through its
effect on Hostile Masculinity ( = 0.27, p < 0.01). The second test was also supported.
The path between General Hostility and Sexual Aggression was significantly reduced
when Hostile Masculinity was controlled for. A path directly from General Hostility to
Sexual Aggression did not exhibit significant influence (p > 0.10). The third test was
also supported. As evidenced in Figure 5, the path from Hostile Masculinity to Sexual
Aggression was significant when the entire General Hostility construct was controlled
for.
Discussion

The results generally support the development of the Confluence Model into what will be
referred to here as a “hierarchical-mediation” model, (Malamuth, in press). The
hypothesis that the confluence between Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex was an
important predictor of participants’ self-reported history of committing sexual coercion
and/or assault was generally supported by hierarchical regression analyses. In the current
study, IS was not a significant predictor by itself; however, it did interact with other
terms significantly in the predicted direction.
The hypothesized interaction between the Confluence Model and sexually explicit
media was strongly supported by ANOVA analyses and also structural equation
modeling. The 3-way interaction between HM, IS and pornography had not been
rendered in structural equation modeling before, but performed as expected,
demonstrating significant indirect effects on sexual aggression. The refined measurement
of the pornography variable in the present study and its successfully replicated interaction
effects should yield increased confidence in the hypothesis that pornography indirectly
and significantly influences sexual aggression.
As a general approach to media research, these results illustrate the importance of
examining the media within a broader context and understanding the media’s complex


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