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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Unformatted Document Text:  A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression Page 14 of 23 interactions with other influences. By applying prior research that examines the characteristics of sexual aggressors to the study of pornography influence, we can better observe how different people seek out and respond to the media differently in accordance with their own predispositions and their ongoing social relationships. ANOVA analyses confirmed that the effect of pornography consumption on sexual aggression could be clearly distilled when high levels of impersonal sexuality and hostility towards women were both present, (e.g. risk scores of 4 and above). Furthermore, the effect of pornography was not significant among men who were low risk for sexual aggression, thus supporting the assertion that for the majority of American men, pornography consumption is not associated with high levels of sexual aggression, (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000). A notable feature of the present research is the rendering of pornography consumption in relation to broader antisocial personality factors. As indicated in Figure 5, pornography consumption and general hostility are significantly correlated, thus sustaining the notion that the combined presence of certain general personality traits is related to increased pornography use. Furthermore, these general ‘hostile’ personality traits may also have important implications for understanding content preferences and behavioral reactions associated with pornography use. Based on the findings of Allen et al. (2000), sex criminals, as compared to men from the non-criminal population, tend to share a preference for coercive forms of pornography and an inclination towards impulsively seeking sexual gratification from pornography, including sexual coercion. Similarly, in the non-criminal population, Boeringer (1994) found that sexual coercion correlated significantly with the use of hard-core pornography (r = .27), violent pornography (r = .40) and rape pornography (r = .39), but it was not correlated with the use of soft-core pornography (r = .07). Further research might then examine the mechanism that relates the general ‘hostile’ personality characteristics presented here to increased “acting out” after pornography use and attraction to violent pornography. In this line of reasoning, we emphasize the importance of considering media stimuli in the context of other influences. By examining pornography use in a broad framework of factors that meaningfully contribute to sexual aggression, a basis for relating media preferences to a specific set of general personality characteristics can become manifest. In the present sample, there was a strong correlation between sexually explicit media and sexual aggression, (r = .477, p < .01). Although modification indices suggested a direct path leading from sexually explicit media to sexual aggression, it was determined that such a path is not theoretically consistent with prior research. While there is strong evidence supporting a direct causal relationship between sexually explicit media and sexual aggression in laboratory settings, (see meta-analyses by Allen, D’Alessio & Brezgel, 1995; Allen, Emmers, et al., 1995 described earlier), naturalistic analyses have not found a basis for distinguishing the role of pornography use as a cause or an outcome of sexually aggressive tendencies, (or both), (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss 2000). Structural equation modeling shows that there is indeed a strong mediational relationship between General Hostility and Hostile Masculinity. Although the inclusion of General Hostility did not increase the amount of variance accounted for by the model, the inclusion of general hostility did not markedly decrease its predictive ability either. Rather, further specifying the general features that contribute to sexual aggression may

Authors: vega, vanessa. and Malamuth, Neil.
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A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Page 14 of 23
interactions with other influences. By applying prior research that examines the
characteristics of sexual aggressors to the study of pornography influence, we can better
observe how different people seek out and respond to the media differently in accordance
with their own predispositions and their ongoing social relationships. ANOVA analyses
confirmed that the effect of pornography consumption on sexual aggression could be
clearly distilled when high levels of impersonal sexuality and hostility towards women
were both present, (e.g. risk scores of 4 and above). Furthermore, the effect of
pornography was not significant among men who were low risk for sexual aggression,
thus supporting the assertion that for the majority of American men, pornography
consumption is not associated with high levels of sexual aggression, (Malamuth,
Addison, & Koss, 2000).
A notable feature of the present research is the rendering of pornography
consumption in relation to broader antisocial personality factors. As indicated in Figure
5, pornography consumption and general hostility are significantly correlated, thus
sustaining the notion that the combined presence of certain general personality traits is
related to increased pornography use. Furthermore, these general ‘hostile’ personality
traits may also have important implications for understanding content preferences and
behavioral reactions associated with pornography use. Based on the findings of Allen et
al. (2000), sex criminals, as compared to men from the non-criminal population, tend to
share a preference for coercive forms of pornography and an inclination towards
impulsively seeking sexual gratification from pornography, including sexual coercion.
Similarly, in the non-criminal population, Boeringer (1994) found that sexual coercion
correlated significantly with the use of hard-core pornography (r = .27), violent
pornography (r = .40) and rape pornography (r = .39), but it was not correlated with the
use of soft-core pornography (r = .07). Further research might then examine the
mechanism that relates the general ‘hostile’ personality characteristics presented here to
increased “acting out” after pornography use and attraction to violent pornography. In
this line of reasoning, we emphasize the importance of considering media stimuli in the
context of other influences. By examining pornography use in a broad framework of
factors that meaningfully contribute to sexual aggression, a basis for relating media
preferences to a specific set of general personality characteristics can become manifest.
In the present sample, there was a strong correlation between sexually explicit
media and sexual aggression, (r = .477, p < .01). Although modification indices
suggested a direct path leading from sexually explicit media to sexual aggression, it was
determined that such a path is not theoretically consistent with prior research. While
there is strong evidence supporting a direct causal relationship between sexually explicit
media and sexual aggression in laboratory settings, (see meta-analyses by Allen,
D’Alessio & Brezgel, 1995; Allen, Emmers, et al., 1995 described earlier), naturalistic
analyses have not found a basis for distinguishing the role of pornography use as a cause
or an outcome of sexually aggressive tendencies, (or both), (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss
2000).
Structural equation modeling shows that there is indeed a strong mediational
relationship between General Hostility and Hostile Masculinity. Although the inclusion
of General Hostility did not increase the amount of variance accounted for by the model,
the inclusion of general hostility did not markedly decrease its predictive ability either.
Rather, further specifying the general features that contribute to sexual aggression may


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