All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Unformatted Document Text:  A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression Page 4 of 23 attitudes supporting sexual aggression, while the literature that examines convicted sexual aggressors has focused predominantly on more general characteristics that relate to a broader range of antisocial behaviors, such as impulsivity and callousness. Two notable models of such research are the Confluence Model, described above, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scale, (Hare et al., 1990). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scale (Hare et al. 1990) has been used with noted success in samples of incarcerated men (Harpur, Hart & Hare, 2002) to assess prototypical characteristics of psychopathy. Additionally, Hare has emphasized, “the joint presence of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal appears to particularly problematic among adult and adolescent sex offenders,” (Hare 2000). Thus, the PCL-R scale has also been used to identify sexual aggressors in the criminal population based on its measurement of general characteristics associated with psychopathy. In a recent study by Porter et al. (2000), it was found that a 35.9% of rapists and 64% of rapists/child molesters scored high (30 or above) on the PCL-R scale of psychopathy. These two spheres of literature on sexual aggression have developed rather independently, examining seemingly different characteristics in samples of criminals and non-criminals; however, the advance of structural equation modeling and path analysis techniques has helped to rebuild a theoretical bridge between the two fields. Using this statistical technique, Malamuth et al. (1995) proposed and supported the hypothesis that the relationship between “General Hostility” and sexual aggression is mediated by the Hostile Masculinity construct. Mediation refers to the notion that some constructs or factors have proximate or direct paths into the outcome variable, whereas others relate to the outcome only via mediation by more proximate factors. In their assessment of General Hostility, these researchers successfully incorporated several scales measuring general tendencies of emotional dyscontrol and impulsivity, characteristics associated with a wide range of antisocial behaviors. However, the study indicated that further development of the General Hostility construct was needed. The findings of Malamuth et al. (1995) suggest that the factors associated with sexual aggression among criminals and non-criminals may not be as different as the research indicates. Furthermore, any convergence between the two populations in the correlatives of sexual aggression would add considerable confidence to the validity of those characteristics as important in the etiology of sexual aggression. In that light, the Confluence Model and the PCL-R scale can be shown to share several features in common. Both models include the behavioral factors of delinquency and sexual promiscuity. While the Confluence Model emphasizes impersonal relationships, the PCL-R scale emphasizes short-term marital relationships. The impulsiveness and short-tempered items of the PCL-R correspond closely to the tendencies of emotional dyscontrol and impulsivity referred to in the Confluence Model General Hostility construct, (Malamuth et al., 1995). One of the interpersonal factors measured by the PCL-R scale (Hare, 2000) is described as a “Grandiose, arrogant, callous, dominant, superficial, deceptive and manipulative personality.” This conceptualization is rather consistent with the description of Negative Masculinity, a component of Bem’s (1974) Sex Role Inventory, and a component that Confluence Model research has included as part of the Hostile Masculinity construct. Among men who display Negative Masculinity, most generally characterized by high orientation towards self, the link between the risk characteristics and sexual aggression is strong, (Malamuth et al, 1995).

Authors: vega, vanessa. and Malamuth, Neil.
first   previous   Page 4 of 23   next   last



background image
A Mediational-Hierarchical Model of Sexual Aggression
Page 4 of 23
attitudes supporting sexual aggression, while the literature that examines convicted
sexual aggressors has focused predominantly on more general characteristics that relate
to a broader range of antisocial behaviors, such as impulsivity and callousness. Two
notable models of such research are the Confluence Model, described above, and the
Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scale, (Hare et al., 1990). The Psychopathy Checklist-
Revised (PCL-R) scale (Hare et al. 1990) has been used with noted success in samples of
incarcerated men (Harpur, Hart & Hare, 2002) to assess prototypical characteristics of
psychopathy. Additionally, Hare has emphasized, “the joint presence of psychopathy and
deviant sexual arousal appears to particularly problematic among adult and adolescent
sex offenders,” (Hare 2000). Thus, the PCL-R scale has also been used to identify sexual
aggressors in the criminal population based on its measurement of general characteristics
associated with psychopathy. In a recent study by Porter et al. (2000), it was found that a
35.9% of rapists and 64% of rapists/child molesters scored high (30 or above) on the
PCL-R scale of psychopathy.
These two spheres of literature on sexual aggression have developed rather
independently, examining seemingly different characteristics in samples of criminals and
non-criminals; however, the advance of structural equation modeling and path analysis
techniques has helped to rebuild a theoretical bridge between the two fields. Using this
statistical technique, Malamuth et al. (1995) proposed and supported the hypothesis that
the relationship between “General Hostility” and sexual aggression is mediated by the
Hostile Masculinity construct. Mediation refers to the notion that some constructs or
factors have proximate or direct paths into the outcome variable, whereas others relate to
the outcome only via mediation by more proximate factors. In their assessment of
General Hostility, these researchers successfully incorporated several scales measuring
general tendencies of emotional dyscontrol and impulsivity, characteristics associated
with a wide range of antisocial behaviors. However, the study indicated that further
development of the General Hostility construct was needed.
The findings of Malamuth et al. (1995) suggest that the factors associated with
sexual aggression among criminals and non-criminals may not be as different as the
research indicates. Furthermore, any convergence between the two populations in the
correlatives of sexual aggression would add considerable confidence to the validity of
those characteristics as important in the etiology of sexual aggression. In that light, the
Confluence Model and the PCL-R scale can be shown to share several features in
common. Both models include the behavioral factors of delinquency and sexual
promiscuity. While the Confluence Model emphasizes impersonal relationships, the
PCL-R scale emphasizes short-term marital relationships. The impulsiveness and short-
tempered items of the PCL-R correspond closely to the tendencies of emotional
dyscontrol and impulsivity referred to in the Confluence Model General Hostility
construct, (Malamuth et al., 1995). One of the interpersonal factors measured by the
PCL-R scale (Hare, 2000) is described as a “Grandiose, arrogant, callous, dominant,
superficial, deceptive and manipulative personality.” This conceptualization is rather
consistent with the description of Negative Masculinity, a component of Bem’s (1974)
Sex Role Inventory, and a component that Confluence Model research has included as
part of the Hostile Masculinity construct. Among men who display Negative
Masculinity, most generally characterized by high orientation towards self, the link
between the risk characteristics and sexual aggression is strong, (Malamuth et al, 1995).


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 4 of 23   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.