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Exemplars and the Application of the Desert Heuristic When Responding to Fundraising Attempts
Unformatted Document Text:  22 the Dutch participants. However, this interaction did not reach conventional levels of significance and does not relate to the responsibility manipulation. 5. Participants in both experiments responded to this item. The scores were higher in Experiment 2 using a fundraising letter of the Hartstichting (M = 5.56, SD = 1.55) than in Experiment 4, using a fundraising letter of the Association of Heart Patients (M = 5.13, SD = 1.25; t (101.47) = 2.13, p < .05). References Borchert, J., & Rickabaugh, C. A. (1995). When illness is perceived as controllable: The effects of gender and mode of transmission on AIDS-related stigma. Sex Roles, 33, 657-668. Brosius, H. B. (2001). Toward an exemplification theory of news effects. Document Design, 2, 18-27. Brosius, H. B., & Bathelt, A. (1994). The utility of exemplars in persuasive communication. Communication Research, 21, 48-78. Brunel, F. F., & Nelson (2000). Explaining gender responses to “help-self” and “help-others” charity ad appeals: The mediating role of world-views. Journal of Advertising, 29 (3), 15-28. Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus message cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 752-766. Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson & C. P. Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 5, pp. 3-39). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., & Eagly, A. H. (1989). Heuristic and systematic information processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In J. S. Uleman & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 212-252). New York: Guilford. Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 73-96). New York : Guilford Press. Coats, S., & Smith, E. R. (1999). Perceptions of gender subtypes: Sensitivity to recent exemplar activation and in-group/out-group differences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 515-526. Gibson, R., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Exaggerated versus representative exemplification in news reports: Perception of issues and personal consequences. Communication Research, 21, 603-624. Hamill, R., Wilson, T. D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1980). Insensitivity to sample bias: Generalizing from atypical cases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 578-589. Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences (Abridged Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences (2 nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jackson, S., & Jacobs, S. (1983). Generalizing about messages: Suggestions for design and analysis of experiments. Human Communication Research, 15, 127-142. Lerner, M. J., & Goldberg, J. H. (1999). When do decent people blame victims? In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 627-640). New York: Guilford Press.

Authors: Hoeken, Hans. and Hustinx, Lettica.
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22
the Dutch participants. However, this interaction did not reach conventional levels of
significance and does not relate to the responsibility manipulation.

5. Participants in both experiments responded to this item. The scores were higher in
Experiment 2 using a fundraising letter of the Hartstichting (M = 5.56, SD = 1.55) than in
Experiment 4, using a fundraising letter of the Association of Heart Patients (M = 5.13, SD =
1.25; t (101.47) = 2.13, p < .05).
References

Borchert, J., & Rickabaugh, C. A. (1995). When illness is perceived as controllable: The
effects of gender and mode of transmission on AIDS-related stigma. Sex Roles, 33, 657-
668.
Brosius, H. B. (2001). Toward an exemplification theory of news effects. Document Design,
2, 18-27.
Brosius, H. B., & Bathelt, A. (1994). The utility of exemplars in persuasive communication.
Communication Research, 21, 48-78.
Brunel, F. F., & Nelson (2000). Explaining gender responses to “help-self” and “help-others”
charity ad appeals: The mediating role of world-views. Journal of Advertising, 29 (3), 15-
28.
Chaiken, S. (1980). Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of
source versus message cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology
, 39, 752-766.
Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson & C. P.
Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 5, pp. 3-39). Hillsdale,
NJ: Erlbaum.
Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., & Eagly, A. H. (1989). Heuristic and systematic information
processing within and beyond the persuasion context. In J. S. Uleman & J. A. Bargh
(Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 212-252). New York: Guilford.
Chen, S., & Chaiken, S. (1999). The heuristic-systematic model in its broader context. In S.
Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 73-96). New
York : Guilford Press.
Coats, S., & Smith, E. R. (1999). Perceptions of gender subtypes: Sensitivity to recent
exemplar activation and in-group/out-group differences. Personality and Social
Psychology Bulletin, 25,
515-526.
Gibson, R., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Exaggerated versus representative exemplification in
news reports: Perception of issues and personal consequences. Communication
Research, 21,
603-624.
Hamill, R., Wilson, T. D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1980). Insensitivity to sample bias: Generalizing
from atypical cases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 578-589.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences (Abridged Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences (2
nd
Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, S., & Jacobs, S. (1983). Generalizing about messages: Suggestions for design and
analysis of experiments. Human Communication Research, 15, 127-142.
Lerner, M. J., & Goldberg, J. H. (1999). When do decent people blame victims? In S.
Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 627-640).
New York: Guilford Press.


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