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Exemplars and the Application of the Desert Heuristic When Responding to Fundraising Attempts
Unformatted Document Text:  23 O’Keefe, D. J. (2002). Persuasion. Theory and research (2 nd Ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Sia, T. L., Lord, C. G., Blessum, K. A., Thomas, J. C., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Activation of exemplars in the process of assessing social category attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 517-532. Smith, E. R. (1998). Mental representation and memory. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 391-445). New York: McGraw-Hill. Smith, E. R., & Zarate, M. A. (1992). Exemplar-based models of social judgment. Psychological Review, 99, 3-21. Smith, P. B., & Schwartz, S. H. (1997). Values. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Volume 3: Social behavior and applications (pp. 77-118). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., & Tetlock, P. E. (1991). Reasoning and choice. Explorations in political psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Strange, J. J., & Leung, C. C. (1999). How anecdotal accounts in news and in fiction can influence judgments of a social’s problem urgency, causes, and cures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 436-449. Vijver, F. van de, & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Weiner, B. (1980). A (cognitive) attribution-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An analysis of help-giving behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 186-200. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 738-748. Zillmann, D., & Brosius, H. B. (2000). Exemplification in communication: The influence of case reports on the perception of issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Appendix: The experimental text May, 1998 Dear Sir, Madam, Before long, the thirteenth Aids Memorial Day will be held. For the thirteenth consecutive year, we rememberpeople like Marc. Marc, 34, coaches the junior table tennis team at the club in Castricum. The team trains Tuesdays and Thursdays and Marc coaches them on Saturday. His little players are very enthusiastic. With only two matches remaining in the competition, they are three points ahead of the number two team. Will they be promoted to the First Division next year? That is their goal. But will Marc still be with them then? Marc has Aids. (He got it from his wife. She had had an affair with a colleague, which she didn’t tell Marc about) ( (He got Aids from a girlfriend. Marc had had many different girlfriends, with whom he did not always practice safe sex.) Marc is one of the people in the Netherlands with Aids. There are between 8,000 and 12,000 people with Aids in the Netherlands. That is less than the once-estimated 30,000. But what’s worrying is that the contamination numbers are increasing slightly instead of sharply decreasing. As time passes, we notice that people are starting to take the problem less seriouslyand speak more light-heartedly about

Authors: Hoeken, Hans. and Hustinx, Lettica.
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23
O’Keefe, D. J. (2002). Persuasion. Theory and research (2
nd
Ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Sia, T. L., Lord, C. G., Blessum, K. A., Thomas, J. C., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Activation of
exemplars in the process of assessing social category attitudes. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 76,
517-532.
Smith, E. R. (1998). Mental representation and memory. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G.
Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 391-445). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Smith, E. R., & Zarate, M. A. (1992). Exemplar-based models of social judgment.
Psychological Review, 99, 3-21.
Smith, P. B., & Schwartz, S. H. (1997). Values. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi
(Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Volume 3: Social behavior and
applications
(pp. 77-118). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., & Tetlock, P. E. (1991). Reasoning and choice. Explorations
in political psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Strange, J. J., & Leung, C. C. (1999). How anecdotal accounts in news and in fiction can
influence judgments of a social’s problem urgency, causes, and cures. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, 25,
436-449.
Vijver, F. van de, & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weiner, B. (1980). A (cognitive) attribution-emotion-action model of motivated behavior: An
analysis of help-giving behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 186-
200.
Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to
stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 738-748.
Zillmann, D., & Brosius, H. B. (2000). Exemplification in communication: The influence of
case reports on the perception of issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Appendix: The
experimental
text
May, 1998
Dear Sir, Madam,

Before long, the thirteenth Aids Memorial Day will be held. For the thirteenth consecutive year, we
rememberpeople like Marc.

Marc, 34, coaches the junior table tennis team at the club in Castricum. The team trains Tuesdays and
Thursdays and Marc coaches them on Saturday. His little players are very enthusiastic. With only two
matches remaining in the competition, they are three points ahead of the number two team. Will they
be promoted to the First Division next year? That is their goal. But will Marc still be with them then?
Marc has Aids. (He got it from his wife. She had had an affair with a colleague, which she didn’t tell
Marc about) ( (He got Aids from a girlfriend. Marc had had many different girlfriends, with whom he
did not always practice safe sex.)

Marc is one of the people in the Netherlands with Aids. There are between 8,000 and 12,000 people
with Aids in the Netherlands. That is less than the once-estimated 30,000. But what’s worrying is that
the contamination numbers are increasing slightly instead of sharply decreasing. As time passes, we
notice that people are starting to take the problem less seriouslyand speak more light-heartedly about


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