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East Asian Modernities and Localized Media and Cultural Studies
Unformatted Document Text:  ^ At the same time, these Japanese critical MCS possess the characteristics that they are critical intellectuals’ countermeasure against the sense of crisis regarding the social situation that is becoming more conservative and the historical revisionism that tries to newly organize the modern history of Japan. Yet another feature of Japanese cultural studies is that it was a countermove by the intellectuals who criticized the Japanese conservatism. The arenas for discussion were monthly or quarterly magazines or journals, wherein critical intellectuals wrote, instead of the realms of pure academism. Such journals as Thoughts, Impaction, Modern Thoughts, Situation, etc., dealt with such topics as race, nationalism, Japanese modernities, etc., as special issues. The method of presenting such issues employed the journalistic writing style, thereby attempting public writing, instead of following the purely academic writing style. After being liberated from Japanese colonial rule, South Korea and Japan achieved modernization through high economic growths beginning in the 1960s. During this process politically they were politically ruled by authoritarian dictatorial regimes; and, due to anti-communism policies, the media were ideologically much restrained. Until 1987 South Korea had been ruled by military dictatorships and Taiwan had been under emergency martial law. Because of this, within the realm of civil society, freedom of expression and freedom of the press were important values to be obtained by the masses and journalists through political struggles. In order to find a way out of such a situation, many journalists carried out protests to protect the freedom of the press and this became a tradition of the journalist societies in both countries. 4 In the case of South Korea, 4 Western media studies have considered the press freedom in terms of control of the press by the governments. They have little interest in the fact that many journalists have struggled to protect their journalistic freedom in opposition to the authoritarian regimes. As a result, in the Third World journalism as shown in the Western media studies there are only oppressive political powers and there is a lack of a

Authors: Kang, Myung-Koo.
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^
At the same time, these Japanese critical MCS possess the characteristics that they
are critical intellectuals’ countermeasure against the sense of crisis regarding the social
situation that is becoming more conservative and the historical revisionism that tries to
newly organize the modern history of Japan. Yet another feature of Japanese cultural
studies is that it was a countermove by the intellectuals who criticized the Japanese
conservatism. The arenas for discussion were monthly or quarterly magazines or
journals, wherein critical intellectuals wrote, instead of the realms of pure academism.
Such journals as Thoughts, Impaction, Modern Thoughts, Situation, etc., dealt with such
topics as race, nationalism, Japanese modernities, etc., as special issues. The method of
presenting such issues employed the journalistic writing style, thereby attempting public
writing, instead of following the purely academic writing style.
After being liberated from Japanese colonial rule, South Korea and Japan achieved
modernization through high economic growths beginning in the 1960s. During this
process politically they were politically ruled by authoritarian dictatorial regimes; and,
due to anti-communism policies, the media were ideologically much restrained. Until
1987 South Korea had been ruled by military dictatorships and Taiwan had been under
emergency martial law. Because of this, within the realm of civil society, freedom of
expression and freedom of the press were important values to be obtained by the masses
and journalists through political struggles. In order to find a way out of such a situation,
many journalists carried out protests to protect the freedom of the press and this became
a tradition of the journalist societies in both countries.
4
In the case of South Korea,
4
Western media studies have considered the press freedom in terms of control of the press by the
governments. They have little interest in the fact that many journalists have struggled to protect their
journalistic freedom in opposition to the authoritarian regimes. As a result, in the Third World journalism
as shown in the Western media studies there are only oppressive political powers and there is a lack of a


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