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Audience Perception of Framed Music during Times of War
Unformatted Document Text:  Music During Times of War 4 industry elite. Instead of choosing what popular music to listen to, the popular music is chosen for us (Rothenbuhler, 1987). This is true to some extent, as music playlists are not exactly accurate in a popular music summary. However, popular playlists are important: They reflect audience desire as the list builds through the requests from the listeners. While these lists are not flawless, they are reliable and important elements which can be used to measure popular music; popular charts and playlists are a reliable measurement of the public demand for certain songs and musical themes in popular music. In sum, popular music becomes important to investigate in this age of technology when people become more isolated from interpersonal contact. Due to this isolation, people craft their political and social opinions based on the messages framed by media. In fact, citizens of the twenty-first century derive much of their meaning specifically from the entertainment media (Neuman, 2001). With people focusing on entertainment as a source of their meaning, music becomes a channel through which the audience can interpret a message. The music listener hears a message embedded within a song, and then incorporates the message in a personal manner. Now, more so than ever, it is essential to analyze the audience response to these messages framed in music. Literature Review Music is a medium which utilizes a basic theory of communication: framing. Although many communication academics have generated descriptions of framing (Entman, 1993; Iyengar, 1991, 1993; Neuman, Just, & Crigler, 1992; Scheufele, 1999, they do not agree on a concise and exact definition. These definitions and perspectives are neatly summarized by Dietram Scheufele (1999), who notes four primary differing approaches of framing: (1) the actual influences on the construction of frames at the level of source formulation; (2) the method used by the media to actively construct frames; (3) presentation of the frame to the audience; and (4) the extent to which the audience is active in their frame interpretation. In the end, Scheufele (1999) argues for a more comprehensive model of framing which includes all four perspectives. Therefore, in analyzing the extent of the effects of a framed message, all these factors must be considered. Although the primary focus of this research is on the actual message

Authors: Graham, Erica.
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Music During Times of War 4
industry elite. Instead of choosing what popular music to listen to, the popular music is chosen for us
(Rothenbuhler, 1987). This is true to some extent, as music playlists are not exactly accurate in a popular
music summary. However, popular playlists are important: They reflect audience desire as the list builds
through the requests from the listeners. While these lists are not flawless, they are reliable and important
elements which can be used to measure popular music; popular charts and playlists are a reliable
measurement of the public demand for certain songs and musical themes in popular music.
In sum, popular music becomes important to investigate in this age of technology when people
become more isolated from interpersonal contact. Due to this isolation, people craft their political and
social opinions based on the messages framed by media. In fact, citizens of the twenty-first century
derive much of their meaning specifically from the entertainment media (Neuman, 2001). With people
focusing on entertainment as a source of their meaning, music becomes a channel through which the
audience can interpret a message. The music listener hears a message embedded within a song, and then
incorporates the message in a personal manner. Now, more so than ever, it is essential to analyze the
audience response to these messages framed in music.
Literature Review
Music is a medium which utilizes a basic theory of communication: framing. Although many
communication academics have generated descriptions of framing (Entman, 1993; Iyengar, 1991, 1993;
Neuman, Just, & Crigler, 1992; Scheufele, 1999, they do not agree on a concise and exact definition.
These definitions and perspectives are neatly summarized by Dietram Scheufele (1999), who notes four
primary differing approaches of framing: (1) the actual influences on the construction of frames at the
level of source formulation; (2) the method used by the media to actively construct frames; (3)
presentation of the frame to the audience; and (4) the extent to which the audience is active in their frame
interpretation. In the end, Scheufele (1999) argues for a more comprehensive model of framing which
includes all four perspectives. Therefore, in analyzing the extent of the effects of a framed message, all
these factors must be considered. Although the primary focus of this research is on the actual message


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