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Audience Perception of Framed Music during Times of War
Unformatted Document Text:  Music During Times of War 5 framed for a certain audience through the construction of the frames, there are still a myriad of factors which have influenced the construction, perception, and interpretation of the frame - factors for which this research does not entirely address. For the purposes, of this paper, I subscribe to Scheufele’s definition, and acknowledge the influences which govern the formulation, delivery, interpretation, and reformulation of a framed message. With this description of framing, we can operationalize certain components of Scheufele’s definition. A central tenet of the framing concept focuses on the ability of the media outlet to focus on only one aspect of reality. By selecting only a portion of an incident to convey through the media outlet, the author of the text is taking a “snapshot” of reality, or segmenting reality as a picture captures a moment in time (Entman, 1993; Iyengar, 1991, 1999; Neuman, Just, & Crigler, 1992; Scheufele, 1999). By accenting one aspect of reality, the author of the text is omitting all other aspects of the reality (Entman, 1993, p. 53). The two most commonly cited methods of framing are episodic and thematic, although this study directly relates to the process of thematic framing. In his work, Shanto Iyengar explores thematic framing, the portrayal of an occurrence or event, by using a theme in a more storytelling manner (Iyengar, 1991. As explicated by Iyengar, a media outlet tends to frame a message thematically by developing the surrounding elements of the story. In the content of music, development of a theme throughout a song will allow an audience to hear words associated with the central theme, or hear about symbols directly associated with the central theme. When a theme is elaborated throughout a song, the audience has a better opportunity to more clearly perceive the clear theme framed through the music. For the most part, songs focus on a constant theme. The concept of thematic framing examines the text as a means by which a particular aspect of a “framed” reality is thereby depicted. With this concept in mind, the correlation between music and framing becomes apparent: music develops a theme throughout the song. Music has the ability to frame a message for the intended audience, selecting one aspect of a message and solely presenting that single portion (Entman, 1993, p. 52). Essentially, framing

Authors: Graham, Erica.
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Music During Times of War 5
framed for a certain audience through the construction of the frames, there are still a myriad of factors
which have influenced the construction, perception, and interpretation of the frame - factors for which this
research does not entirely address. For the purposes, of this paper, I subscribe to Scheufele’s definition,
and acknowledge the influences which govern the formulation, delivery, interpretation, and reformulation
of a framed message.
With this description of framing, we can operationalize certain components of Scheufele’s
definition. A central tenet of the framing concept focuses on the ability of the media outlet to focus on
only one aspect of reality. By selecting only a portion of an incident to convey through the media outlet,
the author of the text is taking a “snapshot” of reality, or segmenting reality as a picture captures a
moment in time (Entman, 1993; Iyengar, 1991, 1999; Neuman, Just, & Crigler, 1992; Scheufele, 1999).
By accenting one aspect of reality, the author of the text is omitting all other aspects of the reality
(Entman, 1993, p. 53).
The two most commonly cited methods of framing are episodic and thematic, although this study
directly relates to the process of thematic framing. In his work, Shanto Iyengar explores thematic
framing, the portrayal of an occurrence or event, by using a theme in a more storytelling manner (Iyengar,
1991. As explicated by Iyengar, a media outlet tends to frame a message thematically by developing the
surrounding elements of the story. In the content of music, development of a theme throughout a song
will allow an audience to hear words associated with the central theme, or hear about symbols directly
associated with the central theme. When a theme is elaborated throughout a song, the audience has a
better opportunity to more clearly perceive the clear theme framed through the music.
For the most part, songs focus on a constant theme. The concept of thematic framing examines
the text as a means by which a particular aspect of a “framed” reality is thereby depicted. With this
concept in mind, the correlation between music and framing becomes apparent: music develops a theme
throughout the song. Music has the ability to frame a message for the intended audience, selecting one
aspect of a message and solely presenting that single portion (Entman, 1993, p. 52). Essentially, framing


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