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Audience Perception of Framed Music during Times of War
Unformatted Document Text:  Music During Times of War 8 women were instructed to take the place of the men, assuming positions in the home and in the workplace which would keep America alive and functioning. On the other hand, the War on Terror did not draw such a large fighting contingency. During the War on Terror, only those men and women who voluntarily enlisted were called upon to serve. Even with soldiers in service, very few of these Americans were involved in combat efforts. Such similarities and differences between the two wars provide a sense of the cultural milieu that may have influenced America’s reaction to the war and their music preferences. Hypotheses This study combines the elements of framing and popular music. It focuses on two main hypotheses surrounding the effect of popular music during wartime. First, as conveyed by David Dunaway (1987), and his research about music as political communication, music is an instrumental tool for wartime popular communication. With this as a foundation, the first research hypothesis states: H1: During wars triggered by attacks on United States soil, patriotic themes run high and are communicated through the text of the music. This question is applicable to both World War II and the War on Terror. In World War II, song titles reveal popular tunes such as “Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition,” “Chattanooga Choo Choo,” and “Deep in the Heart of Texas.” This study investigates whether the audience responded to this theme as it was framed into most popular music. In the War on Terror, the investigation of patriotism in music seemed appropriate due to the music community’s response to the World Trade Center attacks. After September 11 th , musical artists held benefit concerts, songs were recorded in honor of the event, and musical tributes were conducted in honor of the victims, whether it be Lee Greenwood’s “Proud to Be an American,” U2’s modified tribute to September 11 th through their Super Bowl halftime performance, or the September 11 th telethon America: A Tribute to Heroes. This telethon produced a CD, and approximately on year after the attacks, Bruce Springsteen released an album of songs devoted entirely to September 11 th . With these events, which surrounded both wars, patriotism appeared to be a common political theme framed within wartime music.

Authors: Graham, Erica.
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Music During Times of War 8
women were instructed to take the place of the men, assuming positions in the home and in the workplace
which would keep America alive and functioning. On the other hand, the War on Terror did not draw
such a large fighting contingency. During the War on Terror, only those men and women who voluntarily
enlisted were called upon to serve. Even with soldiers in service, very few of these Americans were
involved in combat efforts. Such similarities and differences between the two wars provide a sense of the
cultural milieu that may have influenced America’s reaction to the war and their music preferences.
Hypotheses
This study combines the elements of framing and popular music. It focuses on two main
hypotheses surrounding the effect of popular music during wartime. First, as conveyed by David
Dunaway (1987), and his research about music as political communication, music is an instrumental tool
for wartime popular communication. With this as a foundation, the first research hypothesis states:
H1: During wars triggered by attacks on United States soil, patriotic themes run high
and are communicated through the text of the music.
This question is applicable to both World War II and the War on Terror. In World War II, song titles
reveal popular tunes such as “Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition,” “Chattanooga Choo Choo,” and
“Deep in the Heart of Texas.” This study investigates whether the audience responded to this theme as it
was framed into most popular music. In the War on Terror, the investigation of patriotism in music
seemed appropriate due to the music community’s response to the World Trade Center attacks. After
September 11
th
, musical artists held benefit concerts, songs were recorded in honor of the event, and
musical tributes were conducted in honor of the victims, whether it be Lee Greenwood’s “Proud to Be an
American,” U2’s modified tribute to September 11
th
through their Super Bowl halftime performance, or
the September 11
th
telethon America: A Tribute to Heroes. This telethon produced a CD, and
approximately on year after the attacks, Bruce Springsteen released an album of songs devoted entirely to
September 11
th
. With these events, which surrounded both wars, patriotism appeared to be a common
political theme framed within wartime music.


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