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Visual Strategies in U.S. and Chinese TV Ads
Unformatted Document Text:  12 A visual story line was conceptually defined as a sequence of shots that told a complete story. In the actual coding process, coders purposely turned off the audio track by examining the shots in a commercial. If the visual story showed a beginning, middle and an end, or if the visuals showed a problem or conflict resolved, the commercial as a unit was coded to be a complete visual story. Coders decided that a visual comparison was present if two products and their features were either displayed through the split screen effect or juxtaposed alternatively or in subsequent shots. The main point is that there were at least two products, or two versions of the same product, displayed in the visuals for the purpose of clarifying strength and weaknesses. In terms of product acknowledgement, coders evenly divided a commercial into three parts and coded if the brand name appeared in the first, second or last third of the commercials. Pacing was measured by counting the number of shots and the length of the commercial. A shot was defined as the duration between the onset and ending of camera recording. Usually, there were transitions between shots, such as simple cuts, wipes and dissolves. However, a shot that was continuous from a wide angle to a narrow angle, or vice verse, was counted as one shot. The subjective camera was counted when the perspective of the viewer was assumed by the camera lens. A typical example was a shot in which the camera followed the product spokesperson to verify the product, as in police shows where the camera followed the law enforcement officer to a crime scene. On the other hand, direct address

Authors: Xue, Fei., Zhou, Shuhua. and Zhou, Peiqin.
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12
A visual story line was conceptually defined as a sequence of shots that told a
complete story. In the actual coding process, coders purposely turned off the audio track
by examining the shots in a commercial. If the visual story showed a beginning, middle
and an end, or if the visuals showed a problem or conflict resolved, the commercial as a
unit was coded to be a complete visual story.
Coders decided that a visual comparison was present if two products and their
features were either displayed through the split screen effect or juxtaposed alternatively
or in subsequent shots. The main point is that there were at least two products, or two
versions of the same product, displayed in the visuals for the purpose of clarifying
strength and weaknesses.
In terms of product acknowledgement, coders evenly divided a commercial into
three parts and coded if the brand name appeared in the first, second or last third of the
commercials.
Pacing was measured by counting the number of shots and the length of the
commercial. A shot was defined as the duration between the onset and ending of camera
recording. Usually, there were transitions between shots, such as simple cuts, wipes and
dissolves. However, a shot that was continuous from a wide angle to a narrow angle, or
vice verse, was counted as one shot.
The subjective camera was counted when the perspective of the viewer was
assumed by the camera lens. A typical example was a shot in which the camera followed
the product spokesperson to verify the product, as in police shows where the camera
followed the law enforcement officer to a crime scene. On the other hand, direct address


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