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Visual Strategies in U.S. and Chinese TV Ads
Unformatted Document Text:  13 was coded when a person in the commercial looked at and spoke directly to the camera, rather than interacting and speaking to people in the commercials. Emotion and arousal were coded using SAM, the Self-Assessment Mannequins (Lang, 1985). SAM as used in this study was a three-point pictorial scale, which was shown be an effective measure of television messages (Lang, Dillon & Dong, 1995; Grabe, Zhou, Lang, & Bolls, 2000). Two dimensions of SAM, valence and arousal, were used. Veneration of the elderly was coded as positive when visuals showed younger people paying tributes to, caring for, listening to and showing admiration to the elderly. Veneration of history and tradition was coded as positive when a shot showed historical events, sites and people or when a shot used traditional cultural symbols, such as the dragon, a religious temple and festival rites to project the product. A shot that showed at least two people in the shot was coded as a group image. It was counted only when the group was consistently in the shot for at least 2/3 of the time. Finally, we adopted the product/service categories from Lin (2001) and made some revisions that included the following: auto and auto parts, beauty and personal care, clothing and shoes, food and drink, household appliances medicine, travel, service and retailers, industrial products, household care, pet products, miscellaneous, combination, computer and cell phone. Results Our first hypothesis predicted that U.S. ads contained more complete visual story lines than Chinese ads. 46.5% of all US ads (93 out of 200) had visuals that could stand

Authors: Xue, Fei., Zhou, Shuhua. and Zhou, Peiqin.
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13
was coded when a person in the commercial looked at and spoke directly to the camera,
rather than interacting and speaking to people in the commercials.
Emotion and arousal were coded using SAM, the Self-Assessment Mannequins
(Lang, 1985). SAM as used in this study was a three-point pictorial scale, which was
shown be an effective measure of television messages (Lang, Dillon & Dong, 1995;
Grabe, Zhou, Lang, & Bolls, 2000). Two dimensions of SAM, valence and arousal, were
used.
Veneration of the elderly was coded as positive when visuals showed younger
people paying tributes to, caring for, listening to and showing admiration to the elderly.
Veneration of history and tradition was coded as positive when a shot showed
historical events, sites and people or when a shot used traditional cultural symbols, such
as the dragon, a religious temple and festival rites to project the product.
A shot that showed at least two people in the shot was coded as a group image. It
was counted only when the group was consistently in the shot for at least 2/3 of the time.
Finally, we adopted the product/service categories from Lin (2001) and made
some revisions that included the following: auto and auto parts, beauty and personal care,
clothing and shoes, food and drink, household appliances medicine, travel, service and
retailers, industrial products, household care, pet products, miscellaneous, combination,
computer and cell phone.
Results
Our first hypothesis predicted that U.S. ads contained more complete visual story
lines than Chinese ads. 46.5% of all US ads (93 out of 200) had visuals that could stand


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