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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  10 presence of justice and balance in the average. The mean, particularly the harmonic mean, was in ancient Greek thinking considered as a yardstick for, among other things, justice and ethics (Staley, C., 1989; Lowery, T., 1969). The middle class meant to Aristotle a just mix, a part of the upper class for its wealth and a part of the traditional majority lower class, the poor, for its numbers. A system based on the rule of the poor would fail to make the upper class happy, as its property would be at risk. In contrast, a system that is based on the dominance of the upper class would not be right since most of the wealth would be concentrated in the hands of the few. A political system that is led by the middle class, it followed, has to be just, moderate, and stable. Aristotelian type of mixed government was utilized later in republican Rome (See Dahl, R., 1989); but the class structure in republican Rome did not seem to have a large middle class at the center. It is rather in today’s established democracies that we observe a relatively large middle class citizenry for the first time in history. Aristotle’s theoretical insight has stood the test of time, indeed. Empirical facts also seem to support the emergence of a large middle class in today’s established democracies. The history of democratic political development in Great Britain, and some other West European countries like Sweden, is a case in point. As the Industrial Revolution enlarged the size of the bourgeois or middle class, 3 this group shared political power gradually with the traditional elite. The crown needed the financial clout of the middle class in order to finance colonial and imperial expansions 3 The eighteenth and nineteenth century bourgeois used to be called the middle class because its economic status was in between the traditional land owning elite and the peasants (and workers). Beginning the latter years of the nineteenth century, however, the bourgeois has replaced the landed elite as an upper class and another new emerging group, professionals, bureaucrats, and small business owners have taken the status of the middle class. The workers, particularly blue collar ones, are considered to be in the lower class (Tiruneh, G., 2001). The bourgeois seemed to have, as Macperson, 1965 argued, more of a liberal ideology; the political values of today’s middle class, in contrast, seems to be both liberal and democratic.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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10
presence of justice and balance in the average. The mean, particularly the harmonic
mean, was in ancient Greek thinking considered as a yardstick for, among other things,
justice and ethics (Staley, C., 1989; Lowery, T., 1969). The middle class meant to
Aristotle a just mix, a part of the upper class for its wealth and a part of the traditional
majority lower class, the poor, for its numbers. A system based on the rule of the poor
would fail to make the upper class happy, as its property would be at risk. In contrast, a
system that is based on the dominance of the upper class would not be right since most of
the wealth would be concentrated in the hands of the few. A political system that is led
by the middle class, it followed, has to be just, moderate, and stable. Aristotelian type of
mixed government was utilized later in republican Rome (See Dahl, R., 1989); but the
class structure in republican Rome did not seem to have a large middle class at the center.
It is rather in today’s established democracies that we observe a relatively large middle
class citizenry for the first time in history. Aristotle’s theoretical insight has stood the
test of time, indeed.
Empirical facts also seem to support the emergence of a large middle class in today’s
established democracies. The history of democratic political development in Great
Britain, and some other West European countries like Sweden, is a case in point. As the
Industrial Revolution enlarged the size of the bourgeois or middle class,
3
this group
shared political power gradually with the traditional elite. The crown needed the
financial clout of the middle class in order to finance colonial and imperial expansions
3
The eighteenth and nineteenth century bourgeois used to be called the middle class because its economic
status was in between the traditional land owning elite and the peasants (and workers). Beginning the latter
years of the nineteenth century, however, the bourgeois has replaced the landed elite as an upper class and
another new emerging group, professionals, bureaucrats, and small business owners have taken the status of
the middle class. The workers, particularly blue collar ones, are considered to be in the lower class
(Tiruneh, G., 2001). The bourgeois seemed to have, as Macperson, 1965 argued, more of a liberal
ideology; the political values of today’s middle class, in contrast, seems to be both liberal and democratic.


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