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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  11 and wars, and the middle class, in return to its tax payments, received seats in parliament. With the continued enlargement of the middle class and the enfranchisement of the working class, a fully functioning democracy was established in Great Britain beginning in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The industrialization process that has begun in Great Britain has led to the convergence of classes to the center in today’s industrial democracies, enlarging the size of the middle class (Kerr, C. et al., 1960). Moreover, the continuous level of economic development in the twentieth century has transformed the industrial nature of the economy of established democracies to what Daniel Bell (1973) has called a post-industrial (or service-based) economy. 4 The service-based economy necessarily requires a highly educated citizenry, mainly the middle class, to maintain its efficiency. And as the level of income or the size of the middle class in a given country increases, the level of power distribution or democracy increases. Moreover, education widens the distribution of rationality or knowledge among citizens of a given country. 5 The higher the level of rationality or knowledge among citizens, the higher the chances that they will make wiser electoral decisions, run for offices, demand unachieved rights, and replace those leaders that are not responsible and accountable. Thus, as power follows property, as Harrington suggested (See Mason, A. and G. Baker, 1985), it also seems to follow knowledge. 4 Others call such and related phenomena post-modernization or post-materialism (see Inglehart, R., 1997 for instance). 5 Economic development, commonly measured by the gross or domestic national income per capita, is now assumed to stand for variables like education, wealth, industrialization, and urbanization. Although there may be some analytical distinction among these variables, they seem to relate to one another so intimately that each one of these taken separately could capture the variance in the dependent variable that could be captured when all the four variables are included. Yet, one always can make a good case for discussing the role of wealth and education separately, as Lipset (1959) does, to show how each affects the democratic process distinctly.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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11
and wars, and the middle class, in return to its tax payments, received seats in parliament.
With the continued enlargement of the middle class and the enfranchisement of the
working class, a fully functioning democracy was established in Great Britain beginning
in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The industrialization process that has begun in
Great Britain has led to the convergence of classes to the center in today’s industrial
democracies, enlarging the size of the middle class (Kerr, C. et al., 1960). Moreover, the
continuous level of economic development in the twentieth century has transformed the
industrial nature of the economy of established democracies to what Daniel Bell (1973)
has called a post-industrial (or service-based) economy.
4
The service-based economy
necessarily requires a highly educated citizenry, mainly the middle class, to maintain its
efficiency. And as the level of income or the size of the middle class in a given country
increases, the level of power distribution or democracy increases.
Moreover, education widens the distribution of rationality or knowledge among
citizens of a given country.
5
The higher the level of rationality or knowledge among
citizens, the higher the chances that they will make wiser electoral decisions, run for
offices, demand unachieved rights, and replace those leaders that are not responsible and
accountable. Thus, as power follows property, as Harrington suggested (See Mason, A.
and G. Baker, 1985), it also seems to follow knowledge.
4
Others call such and related phenomena post-modernization or post-materialism (see Inglehart, R., 1997
for instance).
5
Economic development, commonly measured by the gross or domestic national income per capita, is now
assumed to stand for variables like education, wealth, industrialization, and urbanization. Although there
may be some analytical distinction among these variables, they seem to relate to one another so intimately
that each one of these taken separately could capture the variance in the dependent variable that could be
captured when all the four variables are included. Yet, one always can make a good case for discussing the
role of wealth and education separately, as Lipset (1959) does, to show how each affects the democratic
process distinctly.


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