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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  13 process of democracy in the United States. For instance, the spread of literacy and the distribution of land to farmers in the Jacksonian era had coincided with the spread of white male suffrage in the United States (See Huntington, S., 1974:173; Mason. A. and G. Baker, 1985; DeSipio, L., 2000). Thus, even when democracy was initially established in a state of low level of economic development, in what Lipset (1959) calls ‘immature’ democracies, the system could survive if the proper socioeconomic conditions are satisfied over time. Democracy in India and Botswana, a colonial legacy, did occur under dire economic conditions. Good leadership, among other things, seemed to have sustained democratic rule in both countries. Yet, when democratic rule is established in countries with low levels of economic development, and the balance between the two processes is not maintained for several decades, as was the case in both Botswana and India, the quality of democracy enjoyed by citizens is likely to be lower. One common problem that exists in several poorer democracies is the presence of one dominant party. While several parties compete during elections, the dominant party wins the elections consistently. For instance, Molutsi (1991) argues that Botswana’s democracy lacks party parity that would be useful in the representation of diverse views. To be competitive with one another, political parties need social and economic bases. In poorer countries, one party is likely to be dominant by controlling the support of top economic and political elites. Other parties would have to rely, without success, on the financial support of poorer citizens. Moreover, Botswana, although it has been one of the fastest growing economies since the 1980s, today has an unemployment rate of over 20%. When so many people are out of work, the legitimacy of the democratic system is likely to be affected in some ways. In India, the National Congress Party ruled for about

Authors: Tracy, James.
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process of democracy in the United States. For instance, the spread of literacy and the
distribution of land to farmers in the Jacksonian era had coincided with the spread of
white male suffrage in the United States (See Huntington, S., 1974:173; Mason. A. and
G. Baker, 1985; DeSipio, L., 2000). Thus, even when democracy was initially
established in a state of low level of economic development, in what Lipset (1959) calls
‘immature’ democracies, the system could survive if the proper socioeconomic
conditions are satisfied over time. Democracy in India and Botswana, a colonial legacy,
did occur under dire economic conditions. Good leadership, among other things, seemed
to have sustained democratic rule in both countries. Yet, when democratic rule is
established in countries with low levels of economic development, and the balance
between the two processes is not maintained for several decades, as was the case in both
Botswana and India, the quality of democracy enjoyed by citizens is likely to be lower.
One common problem that exists in several poorer democracies is the presence of one
dominant party. While several parties compete during elections, the dominant party
wins the elections consistently. For instance, Molutsi (1991) argues that Botswana’s
democracy lacks party parity that would be useful in the representation of diverse views.
To be competitive with one another, political parties need social and economic bases. In
poorer countries, one party is likely to be dominant by controlling the support of top
economic and political elites. Other parties would have to rely, without success, on the
financial support of poorer citizens. Moreover, Botswana, although it has been one of
the fastest growing economies since the 1980s, today has an unemployment rate of over
20%. When so many people are out of work, the legitimacy of the democratic system is
likely to be affected in some ways. In India, the National Congress Party ruled for about


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