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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  14 89% of the period between 1947 and 1995. The majority of Indians are also relatively poor, lacking a large middle class. Weak economic conditions had partly led to the deterioration of political legitimacy in the country in the 1980s (See Kohli, A., 1990 for instance). Because the quality of democracy in poorer democracies is, in general, not as high as that in richer countries, some scholars consider the former as systems lacking the characteristics of liberal democracy; they call them with names like “electoral” and “pseudo” democracies (See Diamond, R., 1997 for instance). Perhaps the worst scenario of the establishment of democracy under dire economic conditions was observed in Africa around the 1960s. At independence most of the new African countries transitioned to democratic rule. However, with the exception of Botswana, the Gambia, and Mauritius, these new democratic regimes reverted to civilian and military dictatorships within a few years after independence. In sum, the survival of democratic rule will be higher if democracy is established under favorable economic conditions. Despite the foregoing importance of economic development to democratic transition, there are scholars who reject the assumptions of modernization theory. For instance the dependency / world-system scholars argue that the world-capitalist system is designed in a way that it will bring economic benefits to the core or rich countries. The richer countries exploit the economic resources of the developing or poorer countries. As such, the underdevelopment of the developing countries is the product of the world-capitalist system. With such a lop-sided economic system in place, the claim of modernization theory that poorer countries could develop and become democratic is unwarranted (See Cardoso, F. and E. Faletto, 1979; Wallerstein, I., 1976; Gonick, L. and R. Rosh, 1988). The claims of the dependency / world-system theorists, if correct, could have some

Authors: Tracy, James.
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89% of the period between 1947 and 1995. The majority of Indians are also relatively
poor, lacking a large middle class. Weak economic conditions had partly led to the
deterioration of political legitimacy in the country in the 1980s (See Kohli, A., 1990 for
instance). Because the quality of democracy in poorer democracies is, in general, not as
high as that in richer countries, some scholars consider the former as systems lacking the
characteristics of liberal democracy; they call them with names like “electoral” and
“pseudo” democracies (See Diamond, R., 1997 for instance). Perhaps the worst scenario
of the establishment of democracy under dire economic conditions was observed in
Africa around the 1960s. At independence most of the new African countries
transitioned to democratic rule. However, with the exception of Botswana, the Gambia,
and Mauritius, these new democratic regimes reverted to civilian and military
dictatorships within a few years after independence. In sum, the survival of democratic
rule will be higher if democracy is established under favorable economic conditions.
Despite the foregoing importance of economic development to democratic transition,
there are scholars who reject the assumptions of modernization theory. For instance the
dependency / world-system scholars argue that the world-capitalist system is designed in
a way that it will bring economic benefits to the core or rich countries. The richer
countries exploit the economic resources of the developing or poorer countries. As such,
the underdevelopment of the developing countries is the product of the world-capitalist
system. With such a lop-sided economic system in place, the claim of modernization
theory that poorer countries could develop and become democratic is unwarranted (See
Cardoso, F. and E. Faletto, 1979; Wallerstein, I., 1976; Gonick, L. and R. Rosh, 1988).
The claims of the dependency / world-system theorists, if correct, could have some


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