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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  2 Normal Democracy: Theory and Prediction 1 Introduction The concept of democracy has fascinated social philosophers and scientists since classical Greece. The fascination with democracy is partly a consequence of the quest for understanding the true meaning of the concept. For some it is a political system that would bring about political equality and self-rule to all individuals of a given society. To others, it is a system that allows the presence of equal opportunities and rights. The two different conceptualization of democracy are based on the experiences of the two major democratic experiments that the world has seen so far, democracies in classical Greece and modern nation states. The classical model of democracy draws its inspiration form the democratic experiments of ancient Greek city-states. In such arrangement, citizens were both the rulers and the ruled; political sovereignty and power rested with the people. Each individual citizen had a right and an obligation to serve in administrative duties, chosen mainly by lot. Citizens, with the exception of women, slaves, and immigrants, were politically active. The small size of the cities allowed citizens to meet fact-to-face to make deliberation and decisions on various public issues. Indeed, a more direct form of democracy was practiced. Similar to Rousseau’s argument, the purpose of government was to preserve the interests of the community and the common good. The moral development of individual citizens was a crucial task of democracy (See Petracca, M., 1991 for instance). In sum, the classical Greek city-state democracy was or came close to the ideal form of democracy, self-government and the presence of political equality. In contrast, modern democracies are established in much larger nation-states. This makes the direct political participation and deliberation that was observed in classical Greece be 1 I would like to thank Ross Burkhart, Robert Grafstein, and Gerald Scully for their valuable comments.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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2
Normal Democracy: Theory and Prediction
1
Introduction
The concept of democracy has fascinated social philosophers and scientists since
classical Greece. The fascination with democracy is partly a consequence of the quest for
understanding the true meaning of the concept. For some it is a political system that
would bring about political equality and self-rule to all individuals of a given society. To
others, it is a system that allows the presence of equal opportunities and rights. The two
different conceptualization of democracy are based on the experiences of the two major
democratic experiments that the world has seen so far, democracies in classical Greece
and modern nation states. The classical model of democracy draws its inspiration form
the democratic experiments of ancient Greek city-states. In such arrangement, citizens
were both the rulers and the ruled; political sovereignty and power rested with the people.
Each individual citizen had a right and an obligation to serve in administrative duties,
chosen mainly by lot. Citizens, with the exception of women, slaves, and immigrants,
were politically active. The small size of the cities allowed citizens to meet fact-to-face
to make deliberation and decisions on various public issues. Indeed, a more direct form
of democracy was practiced. Similar to Rousseau’s argument, the purpose of government
was to preserve the interests of the community and the common good. The moral
development of individual citizens was a crucial task of democracy (See Petracca, M.,
1991 for instance). In sum, the classical Greek city-state democracy was or came close
to the ideal form of democracy, self-government and the presence of political equality.
In contrast, modern democracies are established in much larger nation-states. This makes
the direct political participation and deliberation that was observed in classical Greece be
1
I would like to thank Ross Burkhart, Robert Grafstein, and Gerald Scully for their valuable comments.


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