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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  21 levels in the size, income, and knowledge of the middle class, in turn, would lead to a wider distribution of political power or higher level of democracy. However, because data on the size of the middle class is not easy to find, it is helpful to use the income distribution of households of the three-middle quintiles as a proxy for the size of the middle class. 9 And because the measurement of knowledge or rationality is complex and controversial, this study, similar to Plato’s and Aristotle’s use of property as an approximation of wisdom or virtue, will consider income distribution as a proxy for the rationality of the middle class. Thus, assuming that democratic rule is established at the mid-level of economic development, one could observe the level of income of the middle class at the time of transition. The level of income of the middle class at the time of transition may be used as a baseline or a starting point for measuring future increases in the level of political power. If there is an increase in the level of income of the middle class after transition, then we could infer that there is a similar increase in the distribution of power or the level of democracy. In other words, given that political power is an illusive concept to measure directly, I infer its growth from the growth in the income of the middle class. For instance, the income that went to the three middle quintiles (a proxy for the income of middle class) in France, Canada, and Denmark, circa 1995, was 52.6%, 53.10%, and 55.90%, respectively (World Development Indicators, 2001). One could, thus, argue that the level of democracy in Denmark is higher than in both Canada and France. 9 However, such an approximation would be a temporary one since, as it will be shown later, both the size of the middle class and its income would exceed 60% of the total population and national income, respectively, over time.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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levels in the size, income, and knowledge of the middle class, in turn, would lead to a
wider distribution of political power or higher level of democracy. However, because
data on the size of the middle class is not easy to find, it is helpful to use the income
distribution of households of the three-middle quintiles as a proxy for the size of the
middle class.
9
And because the measurement of knowledge or rationality is complex and
controversial, this study, similar to Plato’s and Aristotle’s use of property as an
approximation of wisdom or virtue, will consider income distribution as a proxy for the
rationality of the middle class.
Thus, assuming that democratic rule is established at the mid-level of economic
development, one could observe the level of income of the middle class at the time of
transition. The level of income of the middle class at the time of transition may be used
as a baseline or a starting point for measuring future increases in the level of political
power. If there is an increase in the level of income of the middle class after transition,
then we could infer that there is a similar increase in the distribution of power or the level
of democracy. In other words, given that political power is an illusive concept to
measure directly, I infer its growth from the growth in the income of the middle class.
For instance, the income that went to the three middle quintiles (a proxy for the income
of middle class) in France, Canada, and Denmark, circa 1995, was 52.6%, 53.10%, and
55.90%, respectively (World Development Indicators, 2001). One could, thus, argue
that the level of democracy in Denmark is higher than in both Canada and France.
9
However, such an approximation would be a temporary one since, as it will be shown later, both the size
of the middle class and its income would exceed 60% of the total population and national income,
respectively, over time.


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