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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  34 will attract and retain the water from the river. 19 Normal democracy is likely to attract and retain the normally distributed economic, social, and political systems. From the foregoing discussion, one major question emerges: how come economic and political systems that have existed before normal democracy have not had stable equilibria in the first place? Put differently, did economic, social, and political systems have stable equilibria at some point in the past? Natural Equilibrium in the Past We could go back to history and inquire logically about the distribution of political power among primitive human communities. Some scholars, including Marxists, argue that human beings in the beginning were politically and economically equal. There was no any differentiation between individuals with respect to their economic and political lives. They shared what they produced or earned equally. They also participated equally in political and social decisions they had to make (See for instance Mansbridge, J., 1983). Others claim that there was some form of political and economic differentiation or inequality among individuals in the early human communities. The elders, the braves, the magicians, and the wise usually received special respect and status. Even when all in the community shared economic resources equally, there was a differentiation in status. 19 Riker (1980; 1982) called political science a dismal science because he could not find political equilibrium in modern democratic politics. He was interested in specifically finding political equilibrium that would balance the aggregate values or preferences of individuals. The reason that values or preferences are not balanced in today’s democracies is that power distribution among citizens in these societies is skewed toward the upper classes in general and toward the political ideology of a ruling party or coalition in particular; in other words, the mean and the median are not equal in the current distribution of power. Normal democracy will most likely make possible the presence of political equilibrium that Riker could not find in today’s democracies; the symmetric nature of the normal curve at normal democracy would allow the presence of an optimal solution to a given issue problem.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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34
will attract and retain the water from the river.
19
Normal democracy is likely to attract
and retain the normally distributed economic, social, and political systems.
From the foregoing discussion, one major question emerges: how come economic and
political systems that have existed before normal democracy have not had stable
equilibria in the first place? Put differently, did economic, social, and political systems
have stable equilibria at some point in the past?

Natural Equilibrium in the Past
We could go back to history and inquire logically about the distribution of political
power among primitive human communities. Some scholars, including Marxists, argue
that human beings in the beginning were politically and economically equal. There was
no any differentiation between individuals with respect to their economic and political
lives. They shared what they produced or earned equally. They also participated equally
in political and social decisions they had to make (See for instance Mansbridge, J., 1983).
Others claim that there was some form of political and economic differentiation or
inequality among individuals in the early human communities. The elders, the braves,
the magicians, and the wise usually received special respect and status. Even when all in
the community shared economic resources equally, there was a differentiation in status.
19
Riker (1980; 1982) called political science a dismal science because he could not find political
equilibrium in modern democratic politics. He was interested in specifically finding political equilibrium
that would balance the aggregate values or preferences of individuals. The reason that values or
preferences are not balanced in today’s democracies is that power distribution among citizens in these
societies is skewed toward the upper classes in general and toward the political ideology of a ruling party or
coalition in particular; in other words, the mean and the median are not equal in the current distribution of
power. Normal democracy will most likely make possible the presence of political equilibrium that Riker
could not find in today’s democracies; the symmetric nature of the normal curve at normal democracy
would allow the presence of an optimal solution to a given issue problem.


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