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Rebel Mystic: Toward a Theorization of the Aesthetic and Communicative Dimensions of Reggae and Dub
Unformatted Document Text:  7 liberties, majoritarian decision-making or voting mechanism as well as a system that permits the continuous achievement of a more equal distribution of political power. Democracy, as a procedural concept, is much more than the mere occurrence of elections and liberties. For instance, the presence of majoritarian decision making or voting mechanism, often overlooked and taken for granted, is an essential procedure in the democratic process (See also Schumpeter, 1976; Dahl and Lindblom, 1953). Elected (and, in some cases, appointed) representatives and officials utilize the simple majority rule as a minimum requirement for the passage of laws, judicial decisions, and administrative policies; a majority voting system is commonly used to resolve major issues, including very difficult and divisive ones, by legislation or judicial interpretation. Democracy so defined, on one hand, acknowledges the procedural nature of the concept, that political rights, civil liberties, and majoritarian decision-making or voting mechanism are fundamental. I also assume that the procedural rights, while important ends by themselves, could serve as a means (and a momentum) to bring about a higher level of democracy. Note that democracies could be established in poorer or richer countries and they could continue to develop once established. To account for such important variations among democracies, I add a new and dynamic dimension or attribute of democracy. This dynamic attribute of democracy, ‘a more equal distribution of power’, refers to the additional power that citizens could gain or lose from differences in income or property. That is, the more wealthy an individual is the more influence he or she will have on the policymaking process and the more chance he or she will have in winning offices. More specifically, I assume that the larger the size or the income of the middle class, the wider the distribution of political power or the higher the level of democracy.

Authors: Tracy, James.
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liberties, majoritarian decision-making or voting mechanism as well as a system that
permits the continuous achievement of a more equal distribution of political power.
Democracy, as a procedural concept, is much more than the mere occurrence of elections
and liberties. For instance, the presence of majoritarian decision making or voting
mechanism, often overlooked and taken for granted, is an essential procedure in the
democratic process (See also Schumpeter, 1976; Dahl and Lindblom, 1953). Elected
(and, in some cases, appointed) representatives and officials utilize the simple majority
rule as a minimum requirement for the passage of laws, judicial decisions, and
administrative policies; a majority voting system is commonly used to resolve major
issues, including very difficult and divisive ones, by legislation or judicial interpretation.
Democracy so defined, on one hand, acknowledges the procedural nature of the concept,
that political rights, civil liberties, and majoritarian decision-making or voting mechanism
are fundamental. I also assume that the procedural rights, while important ends by
themselves, could serve as a means (and a momentum) to bring about a higher level of
democracy. Note that democracies could be established in poorer or richer countries and
they could continue to develop once established. To account for such important
variations among democracies, I add a new and dynamic dimension or attribute of
democracy. This dynamic attribute of democracy, ‘a more equal distribution of power’,
refers to the additional power that citizens could gain or lose from differences in income
or property. That is, the more wealthy an individual is the more influence he or she will
have on the policymaking process and the more chance he or she will have in winning
offices. More specifically, I assume that the larger the size or the income of the middle
class, the wider the distribution of political power or the higher the level of democracy.


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