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A Structural Equation Model of Support for English-only Policies and Social Limitation of Immigrants and Minorities
Unformatted Document Text:  Social Limitation Structural Equation Model 15 Linguistic and group identity. Four amended items from the collective self-esteem scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) were used to measure beliefs about group-belonging, and allegiance to language. Summed scores from the items were computed for each participant on this language identity index. Additionally, participants were asked to identify how American they felt on a measure of 1 to 5 (5 = completely American). Spanish mass media . As an indicator of perceptions about growing linguistic presence, the incidence of Spanish in the mass media was assessed. Participants’ responses to the 6 mass media items were summed to compute scores on the linguistic landscape index. Data Analysis All items (apart from demographic data) were coded positively; therefore, a high score indicated strong support for English-only, high language/ethnic group vitality, strong support for social limitation of immigrants and minorities etc. Missing values were replaced with the mean score for the item (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). Items intended for inclusion in the indices described above were subjected to tests for internal reliability. Reliability coefficients were computed for each of the indices using Cronbach’s alpha. Nunnally (1967) established a pre-set level of .60, as acceptable for exploratory work. The English-only index (measuring support for English-only) consisted of only 4 items (3 items dropped), and posted a reliability coefficient of .65. The social limitation index, (with one item removed) posted reliability score of .60. The Anglo vitality index (comprising 4 items) posted a reliability score of .84, the Latino vitality index, also comprising 4 items, posted a score of .80. The relative vitality measure was computed by subtracting the participants' scores on each indicator of perceived Latino

Authors: Barker, Valerie. and Giles, Howard.
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Social Limitation Structural Equation Model 15
Linguistic and group identity. Four amended items from the collective self-esteem
scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) were used to measure beliefs about group-belonging,
and allegiance to language. Summed scores from the items were computed for each
participant on this language identity index. Additionally, participants were asked to
identify how American they felt on a measure of 1 to 5 (5 = completely American).
Spanish mass media . As an indicator of perceptions about growing linguistic
presence, the incidence of Spanish in the mass media was assessed. Participants’
responses to the 6 mass media items were summed to compute scores on the linguistic
landscape index.
Data Analysis
All items (apart from demographic data) were coded positively; therefore, a high
score indicated strong support for English-only, high language/ethnic group vitality,
strong support for social limitation of immigrants and minorities etc. Missing values were
replaced with the mean score for the item (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). Items intended
for inclusion in the indices described above were subjected to tests for internal
reliability. Reliability coefficients were computed for each of the indices using
Cronbach’s alpha. Nunnally (1967) established a pre-set level of .60, as acceptable for
exploratory work. The English-only index (measuring support for English-only) consisted
of only 4 items (3 items dropped), and posted a reliability coefficient of .65. The social
limitation index, (with one item removed) posted reliability score of .60. The Anglo
vitality index (comprising 4 items) posted a reliability score of .84, the Latino vitality
index, also comprising 4 items, posted a score of .80. The relative vitality measure was
computed by subtracting the participants' scores on each indicator of perceived Latino


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