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A Structural Equation Model of Support for English-only Policies and Social Limitation of Immigrants and Minorities
Unformatted Document Text:  Social Limitation Structural Equation Model 7 or groups. Institutional control comprises the group’s presence and support in political, media, educational institutions such that one group is represented disproportionately relative to another; therefore, able to wield more power (Sachdev & Bourhis, 1991). Subjective vitality includes language group members' assessments of their own and other language groups' vitality with regard to their relative socio-structural positions -- demographic salience, institutional power, and status. Giles et al. (1977) argued that language groups provide social identities that contribute to the self-concept; therefore, group members strive for favorable social identities relative to others. Social identity can emanate from a variety of groups (gender, race, sexuality, age, or language group). The nature of subjective vitality. Giles, Rosenthal, and Young. (1985) obtained factor-analytic support for representations of subjective vitality along demographic, institutional support /control, and status factors described by objective vitality. However, other results have been less clear in terms of the three factors. Currie and Hogg (1994) investigated subjective vitality and social adaptation among Vietnamese refugees in Australia. Their six-factor structure did not conform to the original three dimensions of vitality. Instead the three most robust factors reflected political and economic vitality related to increasing numbers of Vietnamese, language vitality, and cultural/religious vitality. In overviewing vitality research, Giles (in press) stated that "vitality is not a static given but, rather, a malleable social construction depending on social group membership and fluctuating sociopolitical circumstances." In addition, he contends that "vitality perceptions are a function…of which target groups are in the evaluative frame, whether the context is the very local neighborhood community or a larger provincial entity." Researchers continue to use the concept creatively, refining measures of vitality

Authors: Barker, Valerie. and Giles, Howard.
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Social Limitation Structural Equation Model 7
or groups. Institutional control comprises the group’s presence and support in political,
media, educational institutions such that one group is represented disproportionately
relative to another; therefore, able to wield more power (Sachdev & Bourhis, 1991).
Subjective vitality includes language group members' assessments of their own
and other language groups' vitality with regard to their relative socio-structural positions
-- demographic salience, institutional power, and status. Giles et al. (1977) argued that
language groups provide social identities that contribute to the self-concept; therefore,
group members strive for favorable social identities relative to others. Social identity can
emanate from a variety of groups (gender, race, sexuality, age, or language group).
The nature of subjective vitality. Giles, Rosenthal, and Young. (1985) obtained
factor-analytic support for representations of subjective vitality along demographic,
institutional support /control, and status factors described by objective vitality. However,
other results have been less clear in terms of the three factors. Currie and Hogg (1994)
investigated subjective vitality and social adaptation among Vietnamese refugees in
Australia. Their six-factor structure did not conform to the original three dimensions of
vitality. Instead the three most robust factors reflected political and economic vitality
related to increasing numbers of Vietnamese, language vitality, and cultural/religious
vitality. In overviewing vitality research, Giles (in press) stated that "vitality is not a static
given but, rather, a malleable social construction depending on social group
membership and fluctuating sociopolitical circumstances." In addition, he contends that
"vitality perceptions are a function…of which target groups are in the evaluative frame,
whether the context is the very local neighborhood community or a larger provincial
entity." Researchers continue to use the concept creatively, refining measures of vitality


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