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Robin Hoods or thieves? A Foucauldian analysis of international trade policies regarding software piracy
Unformatted Document Text:  Foucauldian analysis of international trade policies 8 “The politics of protectionism, government interventionism, discrimination against Japan, bilateralism, the emergence of regional trading blocs (for example, the European Free Trade Association, the Mediterranean Free Trade Association, and others; see Griffith-Jones, 1993), double standards by the USA, the politization of GATT, the concessional admission of unenthusiastic Third World countries, the general flouting of GATT rules by most countries and the so-called ‘diminished giant’ syndrome, whereby a weakened USA no longer has the will or power to lead the world toward free trade” (Dunkley, 2000, p. 39) are among the reasons (the various “histories”) offered for the death of GATT. These problems with GATT lead, eventually, to a series of negotiations, termed the Uruguay Round. These negotiations, launched in 1986, took almost eight years to complete. The Final Act of the Uruguay Round consists of 28 agreements, more than 400 pages of text and 26,000 pages of appended schedules “detailing just who has agreed to what, although it is actually a rather messy conglomeration of 19 agreements, 8 ‘understandings,’ 24 ministerial decisions, and 3 declarations” (Dunkley, 2000, p. 49). The developments of most relevance here perhaps were the “incorporation of services and intellectual property into the GATT system through the GATS and TRIPs agreements” (Dunkley, 2000, p. 174) 2 . Dunkley (2000) termed these developments the “greatest revolution of the Uruguay Round” (p. 174). During the period 1992-1995, two major American trade policy agreements were reached. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, as in Europe, a regional group, 2 GATS is ??. TRIPs stands for Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights, and were adopted at the Uruguay Round. See p. 7??, herein.

Authors: Malyshev, Yuri. and Hamilton, Ann.
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Foucauldian analysis of international trade policies 8
“The politics of protectionism, government interventionism, discrimination against
Japan, bilateralism, the emergence of regional trading blocs (for example, the European
Free Trade Association, the Mediterranean Free Trade Association, and others; see
Griffith-Jones, 1993), double standards by the USA, the politization of GATT, the
concessional admission of unenthusiastic Third World countries, the general flouting of
GATT rules by most countries and the so-called ‘diminished giant’ syndrome, whereby a
weakened USA no longer has the will or power to lead the world toward free trade”
(Dunkley, 2000, p. 39) are among the reasons (the various “histories”) offered for the death
of GATT.
These problems with GATT lead, eventually, to a series of negotiations, termed the
Uruguay Round. These negotiations, launched in 1986, took almost eight years to
complete. The Final Act of the Uruguay Round consists of 28 agreements, more than 400
pages of text and 26,000 pages of appended schedules “detailing just who has agreed to
what, although it is actually a rather messy conglomeration of 19 agreements, 8
‘understandings,’ 24 ministerial decisions, and 3 declarations” (Dunkley, 2000, p. 49).
The developments of most relevance here perhaps were the “incorporation of
services and intellectual property into the GATT system through the GATS and TRIPs
agreements” (Dunkley, 2000, p. 174)
2
. Dunkley (2000) termed these developments the
“greatest revolution of the Uruguay Round” (p. 174).
During the period 1992-1995, two major American trade policy agreements were
reached. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, as in Europe, a regional group,
2
GATS is ??. TRIPs stands for Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights, and were adopted at the Uruguay
Round. See p. 7??, herein.


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