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Assessing Media Exemplars and Shifting Journalistic Paradigms: A Survey Study of China’s Journalists
Unformatted Document Text:  17 through a systematic sampling procedure. The 10 media organizations were selected purposively so that first, the sample would cover the three biggest daily papers in the city, the municipal Party-organ paper, Liberation Daily, the nationally influential paper, Wenhui Daily, and the main local evening paper, Xinmin Evening, and three other dailies selected to give a broader representation, and second, the two TV stations, Shanghai TV and Oriental TV, and two radio stations, Shanghai Radio and Oriental Radio. From each selected media outlet, the number of individuals selected was in proportion to the size of its editorial staff. Cooperation from the top in each media outlet was critical to implementing the survey. In each media outlet, an internal coordinator, usually a person from the Editor or Director’s office, was selected to assist the fieldwork. A trained graduate student from the School of Journalism at Fudan University in Shanghai delivered the questionnaires to the selected journalists with the assistance of the internal coordinator. The respondents filled out the questionnaire in their spare time. The internal coordinator in each media outlet prodded the respondents to complete and return the questionnaires. The graduate student then collected the completed ones and returned them to Fudan University. Of those selected, 420 completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 82%. The sample has 43% females (four people did not provide information in their gender and they are eliminated in the later analysis involving gender) and 29% broadcasting journalists. The average age is slightly above 34 and by average the journalists in the sample have been in the profession for nearly 10 years. At about the same time, the same questionnaire was adapted for surveys of journalism students. Journalism schools/departments from 7 universities in the nation

Authors: Pan, Zhongdang. and Chan, Joseph Man.
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17
through a systematic sampling procedure. The 10 media organizations were selected
purposively so that first, the sample would cover the three biggest daily papers in the city,
the municipal Party-organ paper, Liberation Daily, the nationally influential paper,
Wenhui Daily, and the main local evening paper, Xinmin Evening, and three other dailies
selected to give a broader representation, and second, the two TV stations, Shanghai TV
and Oriental TV, and two radio stations, Shanghai Radio and Oriental Radio. From each
selected media outlet, the number of individuals selected was in proportion to the size of
its editorial staff.
Cooperation from the top in each media outlet was critical to implementing the
survey. In each media outlet, an internal coordinator, usually a person from the Editor or
Director’s office, was selected to assist the fieldwork. A trained graduate student from
the School of Journalism at Fudan University in Shanghai delivered the questionnaires to
the selected journalists with the assistance of the internal coordinator. The respondents
filled out the questionnaire in their spare time. The internal coordinator in each media
outlet prodded the respondents to complete and return the questionnaires. The graduate
student then collected the completed ones and returned them to Fudan University. Of
those selected, 420 completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 82%. The sample
has 43% females (four people did not provide information in their gender and they are
eliminated in the later analysis involving gender) and 29% broadcasting journalists. The
average age is slightly above 34 and by average the journalists in the sample have been in
the profession for nearly 10 years.
At about the same time, the same questionnaire was adapted for surveys of
journalism students. Journalism schools/departments from 7 universities in the nation


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