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Assessing Media Exemplars and Shifting Journalistic Paradigms: A Survey Study of China’s Journalists
Unformatted Document Text:  18 were selected. The selection of the 7 universities was based on a quota-sampling scheme, designed to cover the broadest possible geographic areas, different levels of economic and media development, and different degrees of prestige of universities. 10 In each journalism program, everyone in the freshmen and senior classes was invited to fill out the questionnaire. The completion rate was nearly 100% for freshmen in all 7 locations. The completion rate was lower for seniors (80%+) because many of them were out of campus working on their internship during the period of fieldwork. In addition, in each place, we asked the field operator, typically a senior faculty member in the journalism program, to find up to 100 practitioners who graduated no more than two years earlier to participate in the survey. This procedure yielded a freshmen sample of 609, senior sample of 433, and graduate sample of 560. These surveys constitute the cohort component of our larger project. Measures Media Exemplar Assessments. These are focal variables analyzed in this study. They were measured by asking the respondents to indicate on a 5-point scale (1=very far and 5=very close), how close each medium in a list of 12 was to the “ideal medium” in their mind. These questions are in the questionnaire for all respondents. Although some of the analyses reported in this study examine the data at the individual-item level, to broaden the generality of media exemplar assessment measures, indices were created by averaging across the items deemed to fall into one particular cluster. These are: Party- 10 The 7 universities are: People’s University in Beijing, Fudan University in Shanghai, Lanzhou University, Wuhan University, Sichuan University, Guangxi University, and Jinan University in Guangzhou.

Authors: Pan, Zhongdang. and Chan, Joseph Man.
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18
were selected. The selection of the 7 universities was based on a quota-sampling scheme,
designed to cover the broadest possible geographic areas, different levels of economic
and media development, and different degrees of prestige of universities.
10
In each
journalism program, everyone in the freshmen and senior classes was invited to fill out
the questionnaire. The completion rate was nearly 100% for freshmen in all 7 locations.
The completion rate was lower for seniors (80%+) because many of them were out of
campus working on their internship during the period of fieldwork. In addition, in each
place, we asked the field operator, typically a senior faculty member in the journalism
program, to find up to 100 practitioners who graduated no more than two years earlier to
participate in the survey. This procedure yielded a freshmen sample of 609, senior
sample of 433, and graduate sample of 560. These surveys constitute the cohort
component of our larger project.
Measures
Media Exemplar Assessments. These are focal variables analyzed in this study.
They were measured by asking the respondents to indicate on a 5-point scale (1=very far
and 5=very close), how close each medium in a list of 12 was to the “ideal medium” in
their mind. These questions are in the questionnaire for all respondents. Although some
of the analyses reported in this study examine the data at the individual-item level, to
broaden the generality of media exemplar assessment measures, indices were created by
averaging across the items deemed to fall into one particular cluster. These are: Party-
10
The 7 universities are: People’s University in Beijing, Fudan University in Shanghai, Lanzhou
University, Wuhan University, Sichuan University, Guangxi University, and Jinan University in
Guangzhou.


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