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Assessing Media Exemplars and Shifting Journalistic Paradigms: A Survey Study of China’s Journalists
Unformatted Document Text:  19 organ assessment, web-media assessment, and foreign media assessment. The reliability coefficients for them range from .78 to .84. See Appendix A for details. Journalistic roles. These variables were measured by asking the respondents to indicate on a 5-point scale (1=not at all important and 5=very important) how important each function described in a statement was. A battery of 18 statements was used. Some were adapted from Weaver and Wilhoit (1996) and others were newly created to fit the unique situation in China. Five of the items yielded poor performance empirically. They were eliminated from the analysis. The remaining 13 form four clean factors in an exploratory factor analysis. Using this as the empirical base, four indices were created by averaging across the items in each index. Each yielded an acceptable level of reliability (see Appendix B for details). The four indices correspond to the four roles specified in Weaver and Wilhoit (1996), interpretive, disseminator, adversarial, and popular advocacy. 11 However, as we argued in a previous section, despite the apparent similarity, these indices cannot be interpreted as such based on the surface meanings. Desired training. The questionnaire also includes a battery of questions on how important the training in each of the 11 areas is to nurture a journalist in respondent’s “ideals.” Respondents were asked to indicate their opinion on a 5-point scale (1=not that important and 5=extremely important). One of the items was eliminated due to a poor fit with the others. Four indices were created based on the results of an exploratory factor analysis. They represent training in liberal arts, Party policies, journalism theories and ethics, and journalistic skills respectively (see Appendix B for details). 11 A different name is used for the last factor based on the unique situation in China. The items that form this index are unique to the Chinese context. In addition, “popular mobilizer” would have implied the normative view of democratic participation, which is clearly not applicable in China.

Authors: Pan, Zhongdang. and Chan, Joseph Man.
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19
organ assessment, web-media assessment, and foreign media assessment. The reliability
coefficients for them range from .78 to .84. See Appendix A for details.
Journalistic
roles. These variables were measured by asking the respondents to
indicate on a 5-point scale (1=not at all important and 5=very important) how important
each function described in a statement was. A battery of 18 statements was used. Some
were adapted from Weaver and Wilhoit (1996) and others were newly created to fit the
unique situation in China. Five of the items yielded poor performance empirically.
They were eliminated from the analysis. The remaining 13 form four clean factors in an
exploratory factor analysis. Using this as the empirical base, four indices were created by
averaging across the items in each index. Each yielded an acceptable level of reliability
(see Appendix B for details). The four indices correspond to the four roles specified in
Weaver and Wilhoit (1996), interpretive, disseminator, adversarial, and popular
advocacy.
11
However, as we argued in a previous section, despite the apparent similarity,
these indices cannot be interpreted as such based on the surface meanings.
Desired
training. The questionnaire also includes a battery of questions on how
important the training in each of the 11 areas is to nurture a journalist in respondent’s
“ideals.” Respondents were asked to indicate their opinion on a 5-point scale (1=not that
important and 5=extremely important). One of the items was eliminated due to a poor fit
with the others. Four indices were created based on the results of an exploratory factor
analysis. They represent training in liberal arts, Party policies, journalism theories and
ethics, and journalistic skills respectively (see Appendix B for details).
11
A different name is used for the last factor based on the unique situation in China. The items that form
this index are unique to the Chinese context. In addition, “popular mobilizer” would have implied the
normative view of democratic participation, which is clearly not applicable in China.


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