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Assessing Media Exemplars and Shifting Journalistic Paradigms: A Survey Study of China’s Journalists
Unformatted Document Text:  25 additional variance introduced in this analysis makes it exceedingly difficult to observe cross-sample homogeneity. First, the four samples cover different age cohorts. Second, the three cohorts of journalism students and recent graduates were drawn from different universities located in 7 cities across the nation. Third, because of geographic dispersion of the respondents in the three cohorts, in each of the 7 cities, the local party-organ paper and evening and urban paper was selected as the equivalent to Shanghai’s Liberation Daily and Xinmin Evening. Against all odds, the multi-group CFA shows that the model depicted in Figure 1 yields a very good fit, when the magnitudes of the residuals and factor loadings are allowed to vary freely across the samples. 13 The global fitness statistics show a X 2 -value at 7.05 with 4 degrees of freedom (p=.13). The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is .039. In addition, the group goodness of fit statistics shows that each group’s contribution to the X 2 -value in the global goodness of fit ranges from .24 to 3.88, indicating a good fit of the model in every sample. A further detailed analysis reveals that the only parameter that may show some substantively meaningful cross-sample difference is that for Shanghai practitioners, the two factors have a zero correlation while for the other three cohorts, the two factors can be weakly correlated (r=.16, p <.01). The overall evidence provides an overwhelming support to the thesis that the model of two competing paradigms is widely recognized and shared. Delineating Competing Paradigms We now return to the data of the Shanghai practitioner sample for more detailed 13 This specification allows for differences in the settings and conditions of answering the survey questions across the four samples and variations in the relative weights assigned to each media exemplar under the general structural constraints of the model. The model is analogous to what is called a “congeneric test” administered to different populations (Joreskog, 1971).

Authors: Pan, Zhongdang. and Chan, Joseph Man.
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25
additional variance introduced in this analysis makes it exceedingly difficult to observe
cross-sample homogeneity. First, the four samples cover different age cohorts. Second,
the three cohorts of journalism students and recent graduates were drawn from different
universities located in 7 cities across the nation. Third, because of geographic dispersion
of the respondents in the three cohorts, in each of the 7 cities, the local party-organ paper
and evening and urban paper was selected as the equivalent to Shanghai’s Liberation
Daily and Xinmin Evening. Against all odds, the multi-group CFA shows that the model
depicted in Figure 1 yields a very good fit, when the magnitudes of the residuals and
factor loadings are allowed to vary freely across the samples.
13
The global fitness
statistics show a X
2
-value at 7.05 with 4 degrees of freedom (p=.13). The root mean
square error of approximation (RMSEA) is .039. In addition, the group goodness of fit
statistics shows that each group’s contribution to the X
2
-value in the global goodness of
fit ranges from .24 to 3.88, indicating a good fit of the model in every sample. A further
detailed analysis reveals that the only parameter that may show some substantively
meaningful cross-sample difference is that for Shanghai practitioners, the two factors
have a zero correlation while for the other three cohorts, the two factors can be weakly
correlated (r=.16, p <.01). The overall evidence provides an overwhelming support to the
thesis that the model of two competing paradigms is widely recognized and shared.
Delineating Competing Paradigms
We now return to the data of the Shanghai practitioner sample for more detailed
13
This specification allows for differences in the settings and conditions of answering the survey questions
across the four samples and variations in the relative weights assigned to each media exemplar under the
general structural constraints of the model. The model is analogous to what is called a “congeneric test”
administered to different populations (Joreskog, 1971).


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