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Audience Perceptions of Background Nonverbal Behaviors Displayed by Candidates in Televised Political Debates
Unformatted Document Text:  Background Behaviors: 7 occurring throughout the speech (approximately 16 times). In the condition which featured moderate disagreement, the opponent communicated these behaviors four times (0:16, 1:37,1:59 and 2:25 into speech). Procedures Each of the four videotapes was randomly selected to be shown at two different times, thereby providing student subjects eight different time slots in which to participate. After signing up for one of the eight time slots, each student viewed one of the four videotapes (single screen = 19 men and 29 women; split screen with no disagreement = 21 men and 22 women; split screen with moderate disagreement = 21 men and 25 women; split screen with constant disagreement = 16 men and 26 women). After viewing one of the four videotapes, participants completed four short, 7-point, Likert-type scales. These scales were designed to assess participants’ impressions of the nonspeaking candidate’s respectfulness (2 items = the nonspeaking candidate was respectful/not respectful; considerate/not considerate), the nonspeaking candidate’s appropriateness (2 items = the nonspeaking candidate’s behavior was appropriate/inappropriate; improper/proper), the speaking candidate’s respectfulness (2 items = the speaking candidate was respectful/not respectful; considerate/not considerate), and the speaking candidate’s appropriateness (2 items = the speaking candidate’s behavior was appropriate/inappropriate; improper/proper) during the course of the debate. The alpha reliabilities were .88 for the scale assessing the nonspeaker’s respectfulness, .94 for the scale assessing the nonspeaker’s appropriateness, .77 for the scale assessing the speaker’s respectfulness, and .95 for the scale assessing the speaker’s appropriateness. Results The first part of the analysis investigated impressions formed of the nonspeaking debater. With ratings of the nonspeaking debater’s respectfulness and appropriateness as the dependent variables, and the behavior of the nonspeaking debater as the independent variable (i.e., constant nonverbal behavior, moderate nonverbal behavior, etc.), multivariate analysis of variance was

Authors: Seiter, John.
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background image
Background Behaviors: 7
occurring throughout the speech (approximately 16 times). In the condition which featured
moderate disagreement, the opponent communicated these behaviors four times (0:16, 1:37,1:59
and 2:25 into speech).
Procedures
Each of the four videotapes was randomly selected to be shown at two different times,
thereby providing student subjects eight different time slots in which to participate. After signing
up for one of the eight time slots, each student viewed one of the four videotapes (single screen =
19 men and 29 women; split screen with no disagreement = 21 men and 22 women; split screen
with moderate disagreement = 21 men and 25 women; split screen with constant disagreement =
16 men and 26 women).
After viewing one of the four videotapes, participants completed four short, 7-point,
Likert-type scales. These scales were designed to assess participants’ impressions of the
nonspeaking candidate’s respectfulness (2 items = the nonspeaking candidate was respectful/not
respectful; considerate/not considerate), the nonspeaking candidate’s appropriateness (2 items =
the nonspeaking candidate’s behavior was appropriate/inappropriate; improper/proper), the
speaking candidate’s respectfulness (2 items = the speaking candidate was respectful/not
respectful; considerate/not considerate), and the speaking candidate’s appropriateness (2 items =
the speaking candidate’s behavior was appropriate/inappropriate; improper/proper) during the
course of the debate. The alpha reliabilities were .88 for the scale assessing the nonspeaker’s
respectfulness, .94 for the scale assessing the nonspeaker’s appropriateness, .77 for the scale
assessing the speaker’s respectfulness, and .95 for the scale assessing the speaker’s
appropriateness.
Results
The first part of the analysis investigated impressions formed of the nonspeaking debater.
With ratings of the nonspeaking debater’s respectfulness and appropriateness as the dependent
variables, and the behavior of the nonspeaking debater as the independent variable (i.e., constant
nonverbal behavior, moderate nonverbal behavior, etc.), multivariate analysis of variance was


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