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Audience Perceptions of Background Nonverbal Behaviors Displayed by Candidates in Televised Political Debates
Unformatted Document Text:  Background Behaviors: 8 performed. Wilks criterion (.38) indicated that the combined dependent variables were significantly related to the behavior of the nonspeaking debater (F 6, 348 = 36.48, p < .0001, eta 2 = .39). To investigate the association of the nonspeaking debater’s behavior with each of the dependent variables, follow-up, univariate analyses with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests were conducted (see Table 1). First, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior was significantly associated with perceptions of his appropriateness (F 3, 175 = 75.08, p < .0001, eta 2 = .56). Specifically, when he indicated constant disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as significantly less appropriate than he was in all the other conditions. Moreover, when he indicated moderate disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as significantly less appropriate than he was in the two conditions that showed no disagreement. Second, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior was significantly associated with perceptions of his respectfulness (F 3, 175 = 67.95, p < .0001, eta 2 = .54). Specifically, when he indicated constant disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as significantly less respectful than he was in all the other conditions. Moreover, when he indicated moderate disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as significantly less respectful than he was in the two conditions that showed no disagreement. The second part of the analysis investigated impressions formed of the speaking debater. With ratings of the speaking debater’s respectfulness and appropriateness as the dependent variables, and the behavior of the nonspeaking debater as the independent variable, multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Wilks criterion (.92) indicated that the combined dependent variables were significantly related to the behavior of the nonspeaking debater (F 6, 348 = 2.49, p < .023, eta 2 = .041). To investigate the association of the nonspeaking debater’s behavior with each of the dependent variables, follow-up, univariate analyses with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests were conducted (see Table 1). First, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior was significantly associated with perceptions of the speaker’s appropriateness (F 3, 175 = 3.96, p <

Authors: Seiter, John.
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Background Behaviors: 8
performed. Wilks criterion (.38) indicated that the combined dependent variables were
significantly related to the behavior of the nonspeaking debater (F
6, 348
= 36.48, p < .0001, eta
2
=
.39).
To investigate the association of the nonspeaking debater’s behavior with each of the
dependent variables, follow-up, univariate analyses with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests
were conducted (see Table 1). First, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior
was significantly associated with perceptions of his appropriateness (F
3, 175
= 75.08, p < .0001,
eta
2
= .56). Specifically, when he indicated constant disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was
perceived as significantly less appropriate than he was in all the other conditions. Moreover,
when he indicated moderate disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as
significantly less appropriate than he was in the two conditions that showed no disagreement.
Second, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior was significantly
associated with perceptions of his respectfulness (F
3, 175
= 67.95, p < .0001, eta
2
= .54).
Specifically, when he indicated constant disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as
significantly less respectful than he was in all the other conditions. Moreover, when he indicated
moderate disagreement, the nonspeaking debater was perceived as significantly less respectful
than he was in the two conditions that showed no disagreement.
The second part of the analysis investigated impressions formed of the speaking debater.
With ratings of the speaking debater’s respectfulness and appropriateness as the dependent
variables, and the behavior of the nonspeaking debater as the independent variable, multivariate
analysis of variance was performed. Wilks criterion (.92) indicated that the combined dependent
variables were significantly related to the behavior of the nonspeaking debater (F
6, 348
= 2.49, p <
.023, eta
2
= .041).
To investigate the association of the nonspeaking debater’s behavior with each of the
dependent variables, follow-up, univariate analyses with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests
were conducted (see Table 1). First, results indicated that the nonspeaking debater’s behavior
was significantly associated with perceptions of the speaker’s appropriateness (F
3, 175
= 3.96, p <


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