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Authoritative Parenting and Drug-Prevention Practices: Implications for Anti-Drug Ads for Parents
Unformatted Document Text:  Drug Prevention Practices 4 Kaufman et al. (2000) concluded authoritative parenting was a “significant and strong predictor of children’s adjustment” and was “maintained even after controlling for the effects of gender, grade level, ethnicity, and income” (p. 240). These results are consistent with other studies that document the developmental and social competence of children raised by authoritative parents (e.g., Baumrind, 1971, 1991; Dornbusch et al., 1987; Steinberg et al., 1991). Following a longitudinal study of Scottish adolescents, Shucksmith, Hendry, and Glendinning (1995) concluded that the “authoritative approach may represent the most effective form of parenting, since young people from such families were the least likely to report symptoms of psychological distress, also irrespective of family type and social class” (p. 266). The conceptualization and measurement of the authoritative parent style (as well as other styles) has evolved slowly over three decades. Baumrind (1971), who pioneered much of this research, employed a complex measurement system comprised of observational procedures, interviews, and psychologists’ Q-sorts. Her measurement has attracted some criticism (e.g., Shucksmith et al., 1995). Subsequently, researchers used the conceptualizations set forth by Baumrind to develop closed-ended measures for adolescents to rate their parents (e.g., Buri, 1991; Dornbusch et al., 1987; Steinberg et al., 1991, 1992). Most recently, Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, and Hart (1995) employed Baumrind’s conceptualization to generate a parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire. Parents complete the questionnaire and their responses are used to classify them as authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive. A modified version (32 items instead of 62) of the original instrument appears to be more sensitive to cross- cultural differences (Wu et al., in press). The authoritative parenting items from Robinson et al. (1995) and Wu et al. (in press) were extracted for this study.

Authors: Stephenson, Michael., Atkinson, Joshua., Tschida, David. and Quick, Brian.
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Drug Prevention Practices 4

Kaufman et al. (2000) concluded authoritative parenting was a “significant and strong predictor
of children’s adjustment” and was “maintained even after controlling for the effects of gender,
grade level, ethnicity, and income” (p. 240). These results are consistent with other studies that
document the developmental and social competence of children raised by authoritative parents
(e.g., Baumrind, 1971, 1991; Dornbusch et al., 1987; Steinberg et al., 1991). Following a
longitudinal study of Scottish adolescents, Shucksmith, Hendry, and Glendinning (1995)
concluded that the “authoritative approach may represent the most effective form of parenting,
since young people from such families were the least likely to report symptoms of psychological
distress, also irrespective of family type and social class” (p. 266).
The conceptualization and measurement of the authoritative parent style (as well as other
styles) has evolved slowly over three decades. Baumrind (1971), who pioneered much of this
research, employed a complex measurement system comprised of observational procedures,
interviews, and psychologists’ Q-sorts. Her measurement has attracted some criticism (e.g.,
Shucksmith et al., 1995). Subsequently, researchers used the conceptualizations set forth by
Baumrind to develop closed-ended measures for adolescents to rate their parents (e.g., Buri,
1991; Dornbusch et al., 1987; Steinberg et al., 1991, 1992). Most recently, Robinson,
Mandleco, Olsen, and Hart (1995) employed Baumrind’s conceptualization to generate a
parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire. Parents complete the questionnaire and their
responses are used to classify them as authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive. A modified
version (32 items instead of 62) of the original instrument appears to be more sensitive to cross-
cultural differences (Wu et al., in press). The authoritative parenting items from Robinson et al.
(1995) and Wu et al. (in press) were extracted for this study.


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